Factors impeding the adoption of weed management practices in four cropping systems of the Punjab, Pakistan

Muhammad Usman, Khalid Mehmood Ch., Ijaz Ashraf, Asif Tanveer


This study was conducted in district Gujranwala with the major objective to identify factors impeding the awareness level and adoption of weed management practices among the farmers from Rice-Wheat, Rice-Potato, Rice-Maize and Rice-Peas cropping systems. Total 356 farmers, selected through the proportionate sampling technique from four cropping systems participated in the study. Data were collected through a structured and validated questionnaire through a face-to-face interview technique and analyzed with the help of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Findings indicated that, inadequate resources, knowledge and limited exposure to the information sources were the factors influencing the awareness level among farmers across the four cropping systems Shortage of finance, high cost of inputs, high cost of diesel and possession of inadequate knowledge were the barriers impeding adoption level. This study suggests that, in order to create awareness and foster the adoption of recommended weed management technologies to further curb the yield losses, the Extension Field Staff should strive to build technical knowledge among farmers through diversified teaching activities. The Integration of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) could help EFS to meet farmers information needs. Furthermore, public-private partnership is also recommended especially for the effective weeds’ management on farm level.


Weeds; Information; Knowledge; Yield loss; Resources; Cropping systems


Ashraf, I. 2001. A study into the effectiveness of communication methods used by pesticide companies to popularize their products among the farmers of tehsil arifwala. Univ. of Agri, Faisalabad., University of Agriculture Faisalabad.

Ashraf, S., G. A. Khan, S. Ali and M. Iftikhar. 2015. Socio-economic determinants of the awareness and adoption of citrus production practices in Pakistan. Ciência Rural, 45: 1701-06.

Ayoade, A. and J. Akintonde. 2012. Constraints to adoption of agricultural innovations among women farmers in Isokan Local Government Area, Osun State. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 2: 57-61.

Borlaug, N. E. 2002. The green revolution revisited and the road ahead Nobelprize. org Stockholm, Sweden.

Cartmell, D., C. L. Orr and D. B. Kelemen. 2004. Methods of information dissemination to limited-scale land owners. Oklahoma State University.

Chamanabad, H. R. M. 2011. Effect of nitrogen rates on critical period for weed control in potato. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research, 17.

Chauhan, B. S. 2012. Weed Ecology and Weed Management Strategies for Dry-Seeded Rice in Asia. Weed Technology, 26: 1-13.

Chauhan, B. S. and J. Opeña. 2013. Implications of plant geometry and weed control options in designing a low-seeding seed-drill for dry-seeded rice systems. Field Crops Research, 144: 225-31.

Cook, R. J. 1988. Biological control and holistic plant-health care in agriculture. American Journal of Alternative Agriculture, 3: 51-62.

Fadare, O. A., D. Akerele and B. Toritseju. 2014. Factors influencing adoption decisions of maize farmers in Nigeria. International Journal of Food and Agricultural Economics (IJFAEC), 2: 45-54.

Hassan, M. Z. Y., B. N. Siddiqui and M. N. Irshad. 2002. Effect of socio-economic aspects of mango growers on the adoption of recommended horticultural practices. Pakistan Journal of Agriculture Sciences, 39: 20-21.

Jabran, K. and B. S. Chauhan. 2015. Weed management in aerobic rice systems. Crop Protection, 78: 151-63.

Kropff and Walter. 2000. EWRS and the challenges for weed research at the start of a new millennium. Weed Research, 40: 7-10.

Maqbool, M., A. Tanveer, Z. Ata and R. Ahmad. 2006. Growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L.) as affected by row spacing and weed competition durations. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 38: 1227.

Muller, S., Scheepens and Greaves. 2000. Biological control of weeds in European crops: recent achievements and future work. Weed Research, 40: 83-98.

Nlerum, F. E. 2008. Socio-Economic Characteristics As Correlates Of Adoption Among Yam Farmers In Rural Ikwerre Areas Of Rivers State, Nigeria. Global Approaches to Extension Practice: A Journal of Agricultural Extension, 2.

Norsworthy, J. K., S. M. Ward, D. R. Shaw, R. S. Llewellyn, R. L. Nichols, T. M. Webster, K. W. Bradley, G. Frisvold, S. B. Powles, N. R. Burgos, W. W. Witt and M. Barrett. 2012. Reducing the Risks of Herbicide Resistance: Best Management Practices and Recommendations. Weed Science, 60: 31-62.

Nzomoi, J., J. Byaruhanga, H. Maritim and P. Omboto. 2007. Determinants of technology adoption in the production of horticultural export produce in Kenya. African Journal of Business Management, 1: 129-35.

Oad, F., M. Siddiqui and U. Buriro. 2007. Growth and yield losses in wheat due to different weed densities. Asian journal of plant sciences, 6: 173-76.

Oerke, E. C. 2005. Crop losses to pests. The Journal of Agricultural Science, 144: 31-43.

Prudent, P., S. Loko, D. Deybe and M. Vaissayre. 2007. Factors limiting the adoption of IPM practices by cotton farmers in Benin: a participatory approach. Experimental Agriculture, 43: 113-24.

Rao, A. N., S. P. Wani, M. Ramesha and J. K. Ladha. 2015. Weeds and Weed Management of Rice in Karnataka State, India. Weed Technology, 29: 1-17.

Riaz, M., M. A. Malik, T. Z. Mahmood and M. Jamil. 2006. Effect of various weed control methods on yield and yield components of wheat under different cropping patterns. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 8: 636-40.

Rubiales, D., J. Verkleij, M. Vurro, A. J. Murdoch and D. M. Joel. 2009. Parasitic plant management in sustainable agriculture. Weed Research, 49: 1-5.

Salehin, M. M., M. S. Kabir, K. M. Morshed and K. S. Farid. 2009. Socioeconomic changes of farmers due to adoption of rice production technologies in selected areas of Sherpur district. Journal of the Bangladesh Agricultural University, 7: 335-41.

Siddiqui, B. N., S. Muhammad and N. H. Malik. 2006. Effect of socio-economic aspects on the awareness and adoption of recommended horticultural practices by apple growers in Baluchistan, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 43: 1-2.

Smith, R. G., L. W. Atwood, F. W. Pollnac and N. D. Warren. 2015. Cover-Crop Species as Distinct Biotic Filters in Weed Community Assembly. Weed Science, 63: 282-95.

Vencill, W. K., R. L. Nichols, T. M. Webster, J. K. Soteres, C. Mallory-Smith, N. R. Burgos, W. G. Johnson and M. R. McClelland. 2012. Herbicide Resistance: Toward an Understanding of Resistance Development and the Impact of Herbicide-Resistant Crops. Weed Science, 60: 2-30.

Yasin, M. 2015. Analysis of adoption gap of weed management practices among farmers under different cropping systems in district khanewal (Punjab), Pakistan, Univ. of Agric., Faisalabad., University of Agriculture Faisalabad.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.33687/ijae.009.01.3588


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Muhammad Usman

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.