Climatic variability during cropping seasons in agroecological zones of Pakistan
This study aimed at assessing the climatic temperature and precipitation across agroecological zones during cropping seasons. Moreover, climatic variations in Pakistan for both parameters were gauged across defined Agroecological zones comprising both cropping seasons traditionally known as Rabi (Winter/Wheat growing) and Kharif (Autumn/Rice growing). Targeting comprehensive analysis, each season further disintegrated in the three stages i.e. sowing, flowering and harvesting stages. We incorporated meteorological data from 1961 to 2017, further climatic parameters extracted by employing a 30-years moving average of monthly means. The study revealed that the three zones having rugged topography were highly vulnerable during Rabi (Winter/Wheat growing) Season having +0.5oC variation in climatic temperature, whereas more than 20mm steep rise in climatic precipitation, it may cause increased or frequent flooding in lower plains. While the zones having smooth and plane topography are much susceptible during Kharif (Autumn/Rice growing) Season having + 0.75oC variation in climatic temperature, whereas more than 10mm decline in climatic precipitation which may lead to drought conditions. Vulnerability in climatic parameters become uncertain and intense which leads to extreme events. However, variation of climatic parameters elevated from +1oC to +1.75oC and from + 25mm to + 40mm respectively during last five decades. It indicates severe threats for agriculture production particularly and sustainability in general. There is a dire need of promoting adaptation strategies to mitigate the risk for the growing population of Pakistan.
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