APICULTURE AND POLLINATOR INDUSTRY SURVEY IN THAILAND
Present study was conducted in Chiang Mai and Chiang Rai provinces are the part of this honey zone producing. This zone is the lychee and longan production in-season. Samut Songkhram province is another lychee production zone and Chanthaburi province is longan production zone in off-season. Total 22 beekeepers were selected by using snowball sampling technique. The 11 bee experts, 4 bee researchers, 9 longan and 6 lychee orchard owners were selected as respondents through purposive sampling technique. The collected data were statistically analyzed with the help of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Findings revealed that 4 bee species: European honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica L.), Asian honeybee (A. cerana indica F.), giant honeybee (A. dorsata F.) and stingless bees (Tetragonula pagdeni (Schwarz) and T. laeviceps Smith) used by beekeepers in Thailand. However, the main species in the bee industry is the European honeybee with 300,000 colonies and the farm value of bee products is about 37.7 million USD and honey export value of 17.1 million USD in 2012. The key nectar crops are longan, lychee and Siam weed. The key pollen crops are corn, giant mimosa and sensitive plant. The peak activities of honeybees are within 4 months starting in December to March which coincide with the availability of the 3 main nectar crops. The biggest challenges, according to beekeepers surveyed, are food sources (25.6%) and the Tropilaelaps mite (25.6%). The bee pollination industry is most developed in the northern provinces and there is a potential to develop in other parts of Thailand. The future of apiculture industry in Thailand is still on the rise because the demand of honey and other bee products both at national and international levels is increasing and the volumes of bee products are not sufficient at present
Anderson, D. L. & M. J. Morgan. (2007). Genetic and morphological variation of bee-parasitic Tropilaelaps mites (Acari: Laelapidae): new and re-defined species. Experimental Applied Acarology. 43, 1–24.
Afik, O., A. Dag, Z. Kerem & S. Shafir. (2006). Analyses of avocado (Persea americana) nectar properties & their perception by honey bees (Apis mellifera). Journal of Chemical Ecology. 32, 1949–1963.
Black, J. (2006). Honeybee nutrition: review of research and practices. Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation. Canberra.
Chaplin-Kramer, R., E. Dombeck & J. Gerber. (2014). Global malnutrition overlaps with pollinator-dependent micronutrient production. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. From http://ec.europa.eu/environment/integration/research/newsalert/subscribe.htm> Accessed on 16 June 2016.
Department of Agricultural Extension. (2014). Daily News. From Accessed on 17 October 2014.
Fyg, W. (1961). Anomalies and diseases of the queen honey bee. Annual Review of Entomology. 9, 207-224.
Goncalves, L. S. & D. Castilhos. (2015). Application of the electronic device “BEE ALERT” for registering death of honey bees, stingless bees in general and disappearance of honey bees (CCD) in Brazil. Scientific Program Abstracts, 44th APIMONDIA International Apiculture Congress. 15-19 September, 2015. Daejeon Convention Center, Daejeon, South Korea.
Goulson, D. (2013). An overview of the environmental risks posed by neonicotinoid insecticides. J. Appl. Ecol. 50, 977–987.
Jankiaw, W. (2010). Sriracha News Center. ASTV Manager online. From Accessed on 17 October 2014.
Kongpitak, P. (2004). Apiculture. Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agricutural, Chiang Mai University, Thailand.
Lea, W. (2015). Tropilaelaps parasitic mites of honey bees. Animal & Plant Health Agency, The National Bee Unit, National Agri-Food Innovation Campus, Sand Hutton, York, UK.
Lundin, O., M. Rundlöf, H. G. Smith, I. Fries & R. Bommarco. (2015). Neonicotinoid insecticides and their impacts on bees: A systematic review of research approaches and identification of knowledge gaps. From Accessed on 16 June 2016.
Ma, L., Y. Wang, X. Hang, H. Wang, W. Yang & B. Xu. (2015). Nutritional effect of alpha-linolenic acid on honey bee colony development (Apis mellifera L.). Journal of Apicultural Science. 59(2), 63-72.
Manning, R., A. Rutkay, L. Eaton & B. Dell.(2007). Lipidenhanced pollen lipid-reduced flour diets and their effect on the longevity of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). Australian Journal of Entomology. 46, 251–257.
Niño, E. L., D. R. Tarpy & C. Grozinger. (2011). Genome-wide analysis of brain transcriptional changes in honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) queens expose to carbon dioxide and physical manipulation. Insect Molecular Biology. 20, 387-398.
Office of Agricultural Economics. (2009). Area of longan plantation in Thailand. From Accessed on 17 October 2014.
Potts, S.G., J. C. Biesmeijer, C. Kremen, P. Neumann, O. Schweiger & W. E. Kunin. (2010). Global pollinator declines: trends, impacts and drivers. Trends Ecological Evolution, 25, 345–353.
Sluijs, J. P., N. Simon-Delso, D. Goulson, L. Maxim, J. M. Bonmatin & L. P. Belzunces. (2013). Neonicotinoids, bee disorders and the sustainability of pollinator services. Curr. Opin. Environ. Sustainability. 5, 293–305.
Tjeerd, B., G. Smagghe, C. A. M. Gested & V. Mommaerts. (2012). Neonicotinoids in bees: a review on concentrations, side-effects and risk assessment. Ecotoxicology. 21, 973-992.
Vanbergen, A. J. (2013). The insect pollinators initiative. Threats to an ecosystem service: pressures on pollinators. Front Ecol. Environ. 11, 251–259.
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright (c) 2016 Chama Phankaew
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.