Mohammad Mohammadrezaei, Dariush Hayati


New technologies has major role toward plant productions. Integrated Pest Management is a farm technology which reduces pesticides in agricultural systems. Agricultural extension services should be considered as the main diffusion technology instrument so that success in many new technologies adoptions depended on this services function. Investigating role of agricultural extension and educational services on integrated pest management adoption by Iranian pistachio growers was the main objective of this study. Kerman province which is located in south west of Iran is the main area of pistachio growers. Those farmers who produce pistachio in that province were the research statistical society. Sample group were selected by using two stage cluster sampling method and questionnaire was used for collecting data. Findings revealed agricultural extension services have the main role in IPM adoption by farmers. Also, those pistachio growers who have more benefited of those services had more IPM adoption. Finally, an experiential model has been presented based on the research results which can be applicable for improving the rate of IPM technology adoption by pistachio growers.


Agricultural extension services, integrated pest management, adoption, pistachio growers, Iran.


Ahmadvand, M. (2008). Perceptions toward Sustainable Agricultural Practices: The Case of Potato Farmers in Hamadan Province, Iran.Journal of Extension Systems, 24,94-105.

Anderson,M. D., Hollingsworth, C. S., Van Zee., V., Coli, W. M., Rhodes, M. (1995). Consumer response to integrated pest management and certification. Agriculture. Ecosystems& environment, 60,97-106.

Andrews, K. L., Bentley, J. W., Cave. R. D. (1992). Enhancing biological control's contributions to integrated pest management through appropriate levels of farmer participation. Florida Entomologist, 429-439.

Asiabaka, C. (2002). Promoting Sustainable Extension Approach: Farmer Field School (FFS) and Its Role in Sustainable Agriculture Development in African. Department of Agricultural Economic and Extension, Federal University of Technology P.M.B, Owerri, Nigeria. Retrieved Jun 18 2008 from

Bartlett, A. (2005). Farmer Field Schools to Promote Integrated Pest Management in Asia: The FAO Experience. Workshop on Scaling Up Case Studies in Agriculture. International Rice Research Institute.16-18 August 2005. Bangkok. Retrieved Jun 10 2008 from http://

Bartlett, A. (2008). No more adoption rates! Looking for empowerment in agricultural development programmes. Development in Practice,18(4-5), 524-538.

Bentley, J. W. (2006). Folk experiments. Agriculture and Human Values,23,: 451- 462.

Bentley, J. W. (1992). Alternatives to pesticides in Central America: Applied studies of local knowledge. Culture & Agriculture, 12, 10-13.

Braun, A. R., Thiele, G., Fernandez, M. (2000). Farmer Field School and Local Agricultural Research Committees: Complementary Platform for Integrated Decision-Making in Sustainable Agriculture. Agricultural Research and Extension Network (AgREN). NO. 105. July 2000. Retrieved July 20 2008from

Chizari, M., Lashkarara, F., Lindner, J. R. (2000).Identifying Barriers to Sustainable Agricultural Practices: Perceptions of Wheat Farmers in Iran.Journal of international Agricultural and Extension Education,2,45-68.

Cole, P. G., Horne, P. A. (2006). The impact of aphicide drenches on Micromus tasmaniae (Walker)(Neuroptera: Hemerobiidae) and the implications for pest control in lettuce crops. Australian Journal of Entomology, 45, 244-248.

Den Biggelaar, C., Suvedi, M. (2000). Farmers' definitions, goals, and bottlenecks of sustainable agriculture in the North-Central Region. Agriculture and Human Values, 17, 347-358.

Devine, G. J., Furlong, M. J. (2007). Insecticide use: contexts and ecological consequences. Agriculture and Human Values, 24,281-306.

Feder, G., Savastano, S.(2006). The role of opinion leaders in the diffusion of new knowledge: The case of integrated pest management. World Development, 34: 1287-1300.

Horn, P., Page, J. (2008). Integrated pest management for crops and pastures.(CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne).

Karami, E, Hayati, D.(1997). Sustainable Agriculture in comparison with conventional Agriculture: Attitudes assessment. Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources,2:1-17.

Karami, E. (1995). Agriculture extension: The question of sustainable development in Iran.Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 5,47-54.

Kenmor, P.(1997). A perspective on IPM. LEISA-LEUSDEN, 13, 8-9

Khan, Z., Midega, C., Pittchar, J., Pickett, J., Bruce, T. (2011). Push—pull technology: a conservation agriculture approach for integrated management of insect pests, weeds and soil health in Africa: UK government's Foresight Food and Farming Futures project. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability,9, 162-170.

Khisa, G., Sthaters, T., Namanda, S. (2005).An introduction to sweet potato farmer field schools. Manual for sweet potato integrated production and pest management farmer field school in Sub-Sahran Africa. Retrieved Nov 12 2008 from Http://

Litsinger, J. A. (1993). A farming systems approach to insect pest management for upland and lowland rice farmers in tropical Asia. Crop protection strategies for subsistence farmers, 45-101.

Mancini, F., Van Bruggen, A. H., Jiggins, J.L. (2007) . Evaluating cotton integrated pest management (IPM) farmer field school outcomes using the sustainable livelihoods approach in India. Experimental Agriculture, 43,97- 112.

Orr, A. (2003). Integrated pest management for resource-poor African farmers: Is the emperor naked?. World Development, 31,831-845.

Padel, S. (2001). Conversion to organic farming: a typical example of the diffusion of an innovation. Sociologic ruralize, 41, 40-61.

Povellato, A.,Scorzelli, D. (2006). The Farm Advisory System: A Challenge for the Implementation of Cross Compliance. Deliverable D14 of the CC Network Project.

Sanderson, J. T., Boerma, J., Lansbergen, G. W., & van den Berg, M. (2002). Induction and inhibition of aromatase (CYP19) activity by various classes of pesticides in H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells. Toxicology and applied pharmacology, 182(1), 44-54.

Smith, D., Beattie, G. A.C. (1996). Australian citrus IPM and citrus leaf miner. Managing the Citrus Leafminer.22-25.

Thijssen, R. (2002). Farmer Field School or Participatory Technology Development? A comparison of principles and results of two participatory approaches. In Anais. International Learning Workshop on Farmer Field Schools (FFS): emerging issues and challenges. Yogyakarta, Indonésia.

Van den Berg, H., Jiggins, J. (2007). Investing in farmers—the impacts of farmer field schools in relation to integrated pest management. World Development, 35,663-686.

Van Duren, B. (2003). Report of Consultancy on the Assessment of the Impact of the IPM Program atthe Field Level. IPM Farmer Training Project Cambodia. Royal Government of Denmark, Ministry ofForeign Affairs, Danida and Royal Government of Cambodia, Ministry of Agriculture. Forestry & Fisheries, National IPM Program. DAALI, Phnom Penh.

Veisi, H. (2008). Report of visiting the rice land field in north of Iran. Tehran: Shahid Beheshti University.

Full Text: PDF


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2015 Mohammad Mohammadrezaei, Dariush Hayati

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.