Assessment of Wheat Foliar Rust Infestations in the Upper, Middle, and Lower Pothwar Regions of Punjab, Pakistan

Summia Sami, Shazia Iram


In the present study, the incidence and severity of yellow rust and brown rust in different regions of Pothwar have been studied. The lower Pothwar region (Jhelum) had the highest incidence of brown rust with a prevalence of 54.3%, while Rawalpindi had the highest incidence of yellow rust in the upper region with a prevalence of 26.8%. In the middle region (Attock), brown rust incidence was the lowest with a prevalence of 4.6%. The severity of both rusts varied among locations, with some locations experiencing severe outbreaks while others had little or no incidence. The highest incidence of both rusts was observed in Harrial for yellow rust (90%) and Balla for brown rust (100%). The severity of rusts ranged from Resistant to Moderately Susceptible. The study examined the yield attributes of wheat crops in the Upper, Middle, and Lower Pothwar regions of Pakistan. The results showed that Rawalpindi district had the highest crop yield, while Jhelum had the lowest. The study also found a correlation between disease incidence and various environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, precipitation, tillers per meter length, tillers per meter square, number of grains per spike, and grain weight. Yellow rust had a strong correlation with humidity, tillers per meter square, and grain weight, while brown rust showed a strong correlation with temperature, precipitation, and humidity. The study highlights the importance of understanding the relationship between environmental factors and crop yield to ensure food security.


Triticum aestivum; Environmental factors; Disease incidence; Correlation analysis; Yield attributes

Full Text:



Abid, S., Masood, M.A., Anwar, M.Z., Zahid, S., Raza, I., 2018. Trends and variability of wheat crop in Pakistan. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development 8, 153-159.

Afzal, S.N., Haque, M.I., Ahmedani, M.S., Rauf, A., Munir, M., Firdous, S.S., Ahmad, I., 2008. Impact of stripe rust on kernel weight of wheat varieties sown in rainfed areas of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 40, 923-929.

Afzal, A., Riaz, A., Ashraf, S., Iqbal, J., Ijaz, M., Naz, F., Shah, S.K., 2022. Identification of durable resistance against yellow rust. International Journal of Phytopathology 11, 97-113.

Ahmad, D., Afzal, M., Rauf, A., 2019. Analysis of wheat farmers’ risk perceptions and attitudes: evidence from Punjab, Pakistan. Natural Hazards 95, 845-861.

Atiq-ur-Rehman, R., Shahzad, A., Muhammad, F., Muhammad, Z., Shamim, I., Yasmin, A., 2011. Status of foliar diseases of wheat in Punjab, Pakistan. Mycopath 9, 39-42.

Bahri, B., Shah, S.J.A., Hussain, S., Leconte, M., Enjalbert, J., de Vallavieille-Pope, C., 2011. Genetic diversity of the wheat yellow rust population in Pakistan and its relationship with host resistance. Plant Pathology 60,649-660.

Batool, S.Q., Iftikhar, S., Ahmed, S.S., 2014. Epidemiological Estimation of Foliar Rust Diseases of Wheat and Pathological Assessment of Different Rust Pathogens Isolated from Rainfed Areas of Punjab, Pakistan. International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research. 5.

Bux, H., Ashraf, M., Chen, X., Mumtaz, S., 2011. Effective genes for resistance to stripe rust and virulence of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici in Pakistan. African Journal of Biotechnology 10, 5489-5495.

Bux, H., Rasheed, A., Siyal, M.A., Kazi, A.G., Napar, A.A., Mujeeb-Kazi, A., 2012. An overview of stripe rust of wheat (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) in Pakistan. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection 45, 2278-2289.

Chakraborty, S., Tiedemann, A.V., Teng, P.S., 2000. Climate change: potential impact on plant diseases. Environmental Pollution 108, 317-326.

Channa, A.W., Bux, H., Jatoi, G.H., Sial, M.A., Shah, S.M., Figari, I.M., Koondhar, N., 2022. Evaluation of seedling resistance and marker assisted selection for leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) resistance in Pakistani wheat landraces, cultivars and advanced Lines. International Journal of Phytopathology 11, 155-169.

Del Ponte, E.M., Esker, P.D., 2008. Meteorological factors and Asian soybean rust epidemics: a systems approach and implications for risk assessment. Scientia Agricola 65, 88-97.

Devadas, R., Simpfendorfer, S., Backhouse, D., Lamb, D.W., 2014. Effect of stripe rust on the yield response of wheat to nitrogen. The Crop Journal 2, 201-206.

Fermont, A., Benson, T., 2011. Estimating yield of food crops grown by smallholder farmers. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington DC 1, 1- 68.

Figueroa, M., Hammond-Kosack, K.E., Solomon, P.S., 2018. A review of wheat diseases - a field perspective. Molecular Plant Pathology 19,1523-1536.

Gill, H.S., Li, C., Sidhu, J.S., Liu, W., Wilson, D., Bai, G., Sehgal, S.K., 2019. Fine mapping of the wheat leaf rust resistance gene Lr42. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20, 2445.

Haider, A., Zaidi, M., 2017. Food Consumption Patterns and Nutrition Disparity in Pakistan. pp. 833-893.

Iftikhar, S., Asad, S., Rattu, A., Fayyaz, M., Khanzada, K., 2010. Spot blotch of wheat in different agroecological zones of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 42, 2139-2144.

Iqbal, M., Khan, M.A., Ahmad, M., Ahmad, B., 2001. Determinants of higher wheat productivity in irrigated Pakistan. The Pakistan Development Review 753-766.

Iram, S., Ahmad, I., 2005. Prevalence and disease incidence of foliar blight of wheat in rice wheat cropping system of Punjab. Pakistan Journal of Botany 37,973.

Iram, S., Iqbal, A., Ahmad, K.S., Jaffri, S.B., 2020. Congruously designed eco-curative integrated farming model designing and employment for sustainable encompassments. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 27, 19543-19560.

Javed, N., Atiq, M., Ahmed, S., Raza, S.M., Nawaz, A., Bashir, N., Ahmad, I., 2013. Adult plant resistance evaluation against leaf rust of wheat in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology 25, 127-132.

Kolmer, J.A., 2005. Tracking wheat rust on a continental scale. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 8, 441-449.

Marasini, D., Marahatta, S., Dhungana, S.M., Acharya, R., 2016. Effect of date of sowing on yield and yield attributes of different wheat varieties under conventional tillage in Sub-Humid condition of Chitwan district of Nepal. International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology 4, 27-31.

Marwat, K.B., Zahid, H., Bakhtiar, G., Muhammad, S., 2006. Survey on weed problems in wheat crop in district Mardan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research 12, 353-358.

Naeem, M., Cheema, Z.A., Ahmad, A.U.H., Wahid, A., Farooq, O., Saeed-ur-Rehman, H., 2013. Agro-economic assessment of wheat (Triticum aestivum) canola (Brassica napus) intercropping systems under different spatial patterns. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology15, 1325-1330.

Nebraska-Lincoln, U., 2014. Leaf Rust: Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources;

Neelam, M., Iftikhar, S., Ahmad, S.S., 2015. Study of foliar rust diseases of wheat crop in Chakwal district using GIS tools. In 2015 Fourth International Conference on Aerospace Science and Engineering (ICASE) (pp. 1-6). IEEE.

Roelfs, A.P., Singh, R.P., Saari, E.E., 1992. Rust Diseases of Wheat Concepts and Methods of Disease Management.CIMMYT, Mexico, D.F.

Salgado, J.D., Roche, E., Paul, P.A., 2016. Rust Diseases of Wheat: Ohioline, Ohio State University Extension, Department of Palnt Pathology;

Salman, A., Khan, M.A., Hussain, M., 2006. Prediction of yield losses in wheat varieties/lines due to leaf rust in Faisalabad. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology 18, 178-182.

Scott, A., 2011. Global food security: could wheat feed the world? Support The Guardian; (acessed 16 May 2014).

Wellings, C., Bariana, H., 2004. Assessment scale for recording stripe rust responses in field trials, Cereal Rust Report Season 2004. Plant Breeding Institute-Cereal Rust Laboratory, University of Sydney 2, 1-2.

Wellings, C.R., Singh, R.P., McIntosh, R.A., Yahyaoui, A., 2000. The assessment and significance of pathogenic variability in Puccinia striiformis in breeding for resistance to stripe (yellow) rust: Australian and International studies. In The Eleventh Regional Wheat Workshop for Eastern, Central, and Southern Africa. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. (pp. 134-143).

Zulfiqar, F., Hussain, A., 2014. Forecasting wheat production gaps to assess the state of future food security in Pakistan. Journal of Food and Nutritional Disorders 3, 1-6.



  • There are currently no refbacks.