Diseases of Plantation Forestry Trees in Southern Ghana
Ghana is on the verge of exhausting its timber resources and has embarked on reforestation. However, the establishment of pure stands of high value indigenous tree species such as Odum (Milicia excelsa and M. regia), Mahogany (Khaya and Entandrophragma species) and Kokrodua (Pericopsis elata) were not successful as a result of insect pest and disease problems. These failures, together with the need to establish plantations partly account for the widespread planting of teak (Tectona grandis), cedrela (Cedrela odorata) and other introduced tree species. Disease outbreaks in Tectona grandis, Cedrela odorata and Ceiba pentandra have been observed with the expansion of plantation estates. A study was therefore conducted to identify key diseases occurring in tree plantations, determine their distribution and evaluate management strategies to contain them. Diseases encountered include root rot caused by Armillaria hemii on T. grandis and Cedrela odorata, leaf spot and dieback on Ceiba pentandra seedlings and saplings caused by Colletotrichum capsici, Fusarium solani and Lasiodiplodia theobromae, stem canker on Eucalyptus spp. caused by Botryosphaeria sp. and leaf blight caused by a Calonectria species. Management of these diseases will require training of foresters on tree health issues, quarantine and silvicultural practices and initiation of sound breeding and selection programmes.
Apetorgbor, M. M., Mancini, F., Turco, E., Cobbinah, J. R. and Ragazzi, A. 2003. The involvement of fungal pathogens in dieback decline of Milicia excelsa saplings in plantations. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection 108 (6): 568-577.
Apetorgbor, M. M., Siaw, D. E. K. A. and Gyimah, A. 2003. Decline of Ceiba pentandra seedlings, a tropical timber species, in nurseries and plantations. Ghana Journal of Forestry 11: (2) 51-62.
Arora, D. 1986. Mushrooms demystified: A comprehensive guide to the fleshy fungi. 2nd Edition. Ten Speed Press, Berkeley, USA. pp 959.
Barnard, E. L., Geary, T., English, J. T., Gilly, S. P. 1987. Basal cankers and coppice failure of Eucalyptus grandis in Florida. Plant Disease 71: 358-361.
Brayford, D. 1997. International course on the identification of fungi of agricultural and environmental significance. International Mycological Institute, Kew, Surrey, UK.
Benhin, J. K. A., Barbier, E. B. 2001. The effects of adjustment in Ghana of the structural program on deforestation. Agricultural and Resource Economics Review 30 (1): 66-80.
Bosu, P. P. and Apetorgbor, M. M. 2009. Rising pest problems in forest plantations in Ghana. Technical Note No. 2. 9pp.
Coetzee, M. P. A., Wingfield, B. D., Coutinho, T. A. and Wingfield, M. J. 2000. Identification of the causal agent of Armillaria root rot of Pinus species in South Africa. Mycologia 92: 777-785.
Chakrabarty, P. K., Meshram, M. K., Sheo, R., Raj, S. 1993. An outbreak of dieback and canker in white silk cotton (Ceiba pentandra). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 63(9): 599-601.
Crous, P. W. 1998. Mycosphaerella spp. and their anamorphs associated with leaf spot diseases of Eucalyptus. Mycol. Mem. 21: 1-170.
Crous, P. W., Phillips, A. J. L. and Wingfield, M. J. 1991. The genera Cylindrocladium and Cylindrocladiella in South Africa, with special reference to forest nurseries. South African Forestry Journal 157: 69-85.
Crous, P. W., Wingfield, M. J., Mohammed, C. and Yuan, Z. Q. 1998. New foliar pathogens of Eucalyptus from Australia and Indonesia. Mycol. Res. 102: 527-532.
Fisher, P. J., Petrini, O. and Sutton, B. C. 1993. A comparative study of fungal endophytes in leaves, xylem and bark of Eucalyptus nitens in Australia and England. Sydowia 45: 1-14.
Foli, E. G., Agyeman, V. K. and Pentsil, M. 2009. Ensuring sustainable timber supply in Ghana: A case for plantations of indigenous timber species. Technical Note No. 1 15pp.
Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2010a. Global resources assessment 2010. Country Report, Ghana. FRA 2010/077, Rome.
Forest Commission 2007. Ghana Forestry Commission, Annual Report, Accra.
Gezahgne, A., Roux J. and Wingfield, M. J. 2003.Diseases of exotic plantation Eucalyptus and Pinus species in Ethiopia. South African Journal of Science 99: 29-33.
Hunter, G. C., Roux, J., Wingfield, B. D., Crous, P. W. and Wingfield, M. J. 2004.
Mycosphaerella species causing leaf disease in South African Eucalyptus plantations. Mycol. Res. 108: 672-681.
Maziah, Z. and Lee, S. S. 1999. Diseases and disorders of teak (Tectona grandis) in Peninsular Malaysia. In: Tropical plant protection in the information age. Eds. Sivapragasam, A., et al., Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Plant Protection in the Tropics. 15-18 March 1999, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 158-163.
Mehrothra, M. D. 1989. Corynespora cassiicola leaf spot of Ceiba pentandra and its control in the nursery. India Forester 115(12): 905-909.
Ministry of Environment and Science (MES). 2002. National biodiversity for Ghana. 55 pp.
Mohd Farid, A., Lee, S. S., Maziah, Z., Rosli, H. and Norwati, M. 2005. Basal root rot, a new disease of Teak (Tectona grandis) in Malaysia caused by Phellinus noxius. Malaysia Journal of Microbiology 1(2): 40-45.
Morrison, D. J., Williams, R. E. and Whitney, R. D. 1991. Infection, disease development, diagnosis and detection. In: Armillaria Root Rot Disease. Eds. Shaw, C. J., Kile, G. A. Agriculture Handbook No. 691. Washington, DC: Forest Service, United States Department of Agriculture, pp. 62-75.
Mwenje, E. and Ride, J. P. 1996. Morphological and biochemical characterization of Armillaria isolates from Zimbabwe. Plant Pathology 45: 1031-1051.
Nandris, D., Nicole, M. and Geiger, J. P. 1987 .Root rot disease of rubber. Plant Disease 71: 298-306.
Ofosu-Asiedu, A. 1988. Some destructive Diseases of Tree crops in Africa, South of the Sahara. 5th ICPP Meeting, 20-27 August, 1988. Kyoto, Japan.
Old, K. M., Gibbs, R., Craig, I., Myers, B. J. and Yuan, Z.Q. 1990. Effect of drought and defoliation on the susceptibility of Eucalyptus to canker caused by Endothia gyrosa and Botryosphaeria ribis. Australian Journal of Botany 38:571-581.
Roux, J. and Apetorgbor, M. M. 2009. First report of Chrysoporthe cubensis from Eucalyptus in Ghana. New Disease Reports 20.
Ryvarden, L., Piearce, G. D. and Masuka, A. J. 1994. An introduction to the Larger fungi of South Central Africa. Baobab books. pp200.
Shearer, B. L., Tippett, J. T. and Bartle, J. R. 1987. Botryosphaeria ribis infection associated with death of Eucalyptus radiata in species selection trials. Plant Disease 71: 140-145.
Smith, H., Crous, P. W., Wingfield, M. J., Coutinho, T. A. and Wingfield, B. D. 2001. Botryosphaeria eucalyptorum sp., a new species in the B. dothidea-complex on Eucalyptus in South Africa. Mycologia 93: 277-284.
Smith, H., Kemp, G. H. J. and Wingfield, M. J. 1994. Canker and dieback of Eucalyptus in South Africa caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea. Plant Pathology 43: 1031-1034.
Smith, H., Wingfield, M. J. and Pertini, O. 1996. Botryosphaeria dothidea endophytic in Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus nitens in South Africa. Forest Ecology and Management 89: 189-195.
Tewari, D. N. 1992. A monograph on teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.). International Book Distributors, 479pp.
Wagner, M. R., Cobbinah, J. R. and Bosu, P. P. 2008. Forest Entomology in Tropical Africa: Forest Insects of Ghana. 2nd Edition. Springer Science and Business Media B. V. 244pp.
Widyastuti, S. and Widyastuti, S. M. 2002. The incidence of pests and diseases on Teak plantation grown from tissue culture in Kendal Forest District, Central Java. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 5(3): 438-441.
Wingfield, M. J., Crous, P. W. and Boden, D. 1996. Kirramyces destructans sp., a serious leaf pathogen of Eucalyptus in Indonesia. South African Journal of Botany 62: 325-327.
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright (c) 2015 Apetorgbor M. Mamle, Roux Jolanda
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.