Farmers’ Perception and Knowledge in Begomovirus Epidemiology and Control in Pakistan

Tehmina Bahar, Mehwish Rauf, Sidra Muqeet, Muhammad S. Haider


Agriculture is the backbone of Pakistan and the growing crops are called as the “spinal cord” of the state but still import bill of the country agricultural products is rising day by day and issues of the food security is also becoming grave because of less knowledge of farmers about the emerging abiotic and biotic stresses affecting the crop productivity. Among various biotic stresses, prevalence of begomoviruses is considered to be a major constraint in reducing the yields of economically important food and fiber crops. Farmers’ perception and their knowledge regarding begomoviruses epidemiology and practices are the pre-requisites for effective virus control. A farmer survey mostly having less than 12.5 acres land mostly of vegetables, rice and maize growers involving 250 randomly selected respondents from five major districts (Nankana, Sheikhupura, Gujranwala, Gujrat, and Lahore) of Punjab, Pakistan to inquire from them whether they are familiar with begomoviruses identification, their means of transfer from diseases inoculum to healthy plants and associated losses in fields, proper management of these losses on time, was conducted to better understand the farmer knowledge and practices and to set the possible pathways for intervention of effective virus control. Lack of sufficient technical information regarding vector of begomovirus, their transmission and disease symptoms was the major hindrance to the efforts of farmers for effective virus control. In addition, the farmers did not have sufficient knowledge of locally available methods of begomovirus control. The highest prioritization aspect of virus control for immediate attention were determined by decision making such as spider diagram. Use of effective pesticides, certified planting material, and begomovirus tolerant cultivars were found to be the most attention requiring virus control aspects which could have a greater influence to lower the virus prevalence in field crops. Present study suggests that enhancing the farmer knowledge is a highest prioritized key determinant of effective virus control strategy for implementation in Pakistan.


Begomovirus; Farmers’ perception; Geminiviruses; Control strategies; Virus epidemiology


Ansar, M., A. K. Agnihotri, T. Ranjan, M. Karn, A. Srinivasaraghavan, R. R. Kumar and A. P. Bhagat. 2021. Nightshade (Solanum nigrum), an intermediate host between tomato and cucurbits of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 60: 409-19.

Anwar, I., H. A. Bukhari, N. Nahid, K. Rashid, I. Amin, S. Shaheen, K. Hussain and S. Mansoor. 2020. Association of cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite and Ageratum conyzoides symptomless alphasatellite with tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus in Luffa cylindrica in Pakistan. Australasian Plant Pathology, 49: 25-29.

Charoenvilaisiri, S., C. Seepiban, N. Phironrit, B. Phuangrat, K. Yoohat, R. Deeto, O. Chatchawankanphanich and O. Gajanandana. 2020. Occurrence and distribution of begomoviruses infecting tomatoes, peppers and cucurbits in Thailand. Crop protection, 127: 104948.

Chi, Y., L.-L. Pan, S. Bouvaine, Y.-Y. Fan, Y.-Q. Liu, S.-S. Liu, S. Seal and X.-W. Wang. 2020. Differential transmission of Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus by three cryptic species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex. Virology, 540: 141-49.

De Mendiburu, F. 2014. Agricolae: Statistical procedures for agricultural research. R package version, 1: 1-4.

Fiallo-Olivé, E. and J. Navas-Castillo. 2020. Molecular and biological characterization of a New World mono-/bipartite begomovirus/deltasatellite complex infecting Corchorus siliquosus. Frontiers in microbiology, 11: 1755.

Florin, M., G. Van De Ven and M. Van Ittersum. 2014. What drives sustainable biofuels? A review of indicator assessments of biofuel production systems involving smallholder farmers. Environmental Science and Policy, 37: 142-57.

Fonseca, M., L. Boiteux, H. Abreu, I. Nogueira and R. Pereira-Carvalho. 2013. Physalis angulata: a new natural host of Tomato chlorosis virus in Brazil. Plant Disease, 97: 692-92.

Khan, J. 2000. Detection of tomato leaf curl geminivirus in its vector Bemisia tabaci. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 38: 512-15.

Maduka, O., G. Akpan and S. Maleghemi. 2017. Using android and open data kit Technology in Data Management for research in resource-limited settings in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria: Cross-sectional household survey. JMIR mHealth and uHealth, 5: e7827.

Malathi, V., P. Renukadevi, S. Chakraborty, K. Biswas, A. Roy, P. Sivalingam, V. Venkataravanappa and B. Mandal. 2017. Begomoviruses and their satellites occurring in India: Distribution, diversity and pathogenesis A century of plant virology in India. Springer. Singapore. pp. 75-177.

Marinus, W., E. Ronner, G. W. van de Ven, F. Kanampiu, S. Adjei-Nsiah and K. E. Giller. 2018. Sustainability assessment of African smallholder farming Routledge Handbook of Sustainability Indicators. pp. 427–50.

Marwal, A., A. K. Sahu and R. Gaur. 2013. Molecular characterization of a begomovirus infecting a new host Golden Duranta (Duranta erecta) in India. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 2: 45-48.

Mubin, M., M. Shahid, M. Tahir, R. Briddon and S. Mansoor. 2010. Characterization of begomovirus components from a weed suggests that begomoviruses may associate with multiple distinct DNA satellites. Virus Genes, 40: 452-57.

Nagendran, K., S. Mohankumar, R. Aravintharaj, C. Balaji, S. Manoranjitham, A. K. Singh, A. Rai, B. Singh and G. Karthikeyan. 2017. The occurrence and distribution of major viruses infecting cucurbits in Tamil Nadu state, India. Crop protection, 99: 10-16.

Nawaz-ul-Rehman, M. S., S. Shakir, S. Ijaz, M. Mubin and N. Nahid. 2017. Status and Diversity of Begomoviruses in Pakistan Begomoviruses: Occurrence and Management in Asia and Africa. pp. 255-69.

Onditi, J., M. Nyongesa and R. van der Vlugt. 2021. Prevalence, distribution and control of six major potato viruses in Kenya. Tropical Plant Pathology, 46: 311-23.

Pandey, V., A. Srivastava and R. Gaur. 2021. Begomovirus: A curse for the agricultural crops. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 54: 949-78.

Pautasso, M., G. Aistara, A. Barnaud, S. Caillon, P. Clouvel, O. T. Coomes, M. Delêtre, E. Demeulenaere, P. De Santis and T. Döring. 2013. Seed exchange networks for agrobiodiversity conservation. A review. Agronomy for sustainable development, 33: 151-75.

Pohl, D. and C. Wege. 2007. Synergistic pathogenicity of a phloem-limited begomovirus and tobamoviruses, despite negative interference. Journal of General Virology, 88: 1034-40.

Prajapat, R., A. Marwal and R. Gaur. 2014. Begomovirus associated with alternative host weeds: A critical appraisal. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 47: 157-70.

Rodríguez, E., M. M. Téllez and D. Janssen. 2019. Whitefly control strategies against tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus in greenhouse zucchini. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16: 2673.

Saghafipour, A., A. Zahraei-Ramazani, H. Vatandoost, A. Asadollahi, R. Fouladi-Fard, A. Hamta and A. Hasanwand. 2020. Relationship between some environmental and climatic factors on outbreak of whiteflies, the human annoying insects. Journal of arthropod-borne diseases, 14: 78.

Sani, I., S. I. Ismail, S. Abdullah, J. Jalinas, S. Jamian and N. Saad. 2020. A review of the biology and control of whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), with special reference to biological control using entomopathogenic fungi. Insects, 11: 619.

Sarwar, M. 2020. Insects as transport devices of plant viruses. In, Applied Plant Virology. Elsevier.

Seal, S., F. VandenBosch and M. Jeger. 2006. Factors influencing begomovirus evolution and their increasing global significance: Implications for sustainable control. Critical reviews in plant sciences, 25: 23-46.

Singh, A. S. and M. B. Masuku. 2014. Sampling techniques & determination of sample size in applied statistics research: An overview. International Journal of economics, commerce and management, 2: 1-22.

Struik, P. C., T. W. Kuyper, L. Brussaard and C. Leeuwis. 2014. Deconstructing and unpacking scientific controversies in intensification and sustainability: Why the tensions in concepts and values? Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 8: 80-88.

Varma, A., B. Mandal and M. Singh. 2013. Emergence of begomoviruses: A major threat to vegetable production in Southeast Asia. Proceedings SEAVEG 2012, High value vegetables in Southeast Asia: Production, supply and demand, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Yaqoob, S., N. Fatima, S. Khan, Q. Ali, M. Hafeez and A. Malik. 2020. Begomovirus and betasatellites associated with CLCuD. Biological and Clinical Sciences Research Journal, 2: 1-7.

Zaidi, S., S. Shakir, M. Farooq, I. Amin and S. Mansoor. 2017. First report of a novel strain of tomato yellow leaf curl virus causing yellow leaf curl disease on cluster bean in Pakistan. Plant Disease, 101: 1071.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.33687/phytopath.012.01.4480


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Tehmina Bahar, Muhammad Saleem Haider

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.