Prevalence of Fusarium Wilt of Tomato in Major Tomato Growing Areas of Punjab, Pakistan

Salman Ahmad, Maryam Yousaf, Romana Anjum, Waqas Raza, Malik A. Rehman, Yasir Ali


Tomato is an essential vegetable in the world due to its nutritional importance. It has vitamin A & C and lycopene, which reduce the prostate cancer, and heart and age-related diseases. Tomato wilt disease (TWD) is a potential threat and spreading rapidly in tomato fields in Pakistan. The survey on the disease prevalence of Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (Fol)) of tomato was conducted in the major tomato growing areas of Punjab, viz., Hafizabad, Pakpattan, Khushab, Sargodha and Faisalabad districts during the cropping season 2018. Tomato wilt disease incidence was higher in district Sargodha (94%) followed by Faisalabad (92%) and Khushab (65%). Two districts, Pakpattan and Hafizabad showed 86% and 73% incidence, respectively. The survey revealed that tomato disease incidence was prevalent with varying intensities in all surveyed districts of Punjab. Moreover, the variation in disease prevalence of tomato wilt disease in different locations was due to the environmental conditions of that area and the varieties being cultivated.


Survey; severity; incidence; pathogen; disease; Fusarium wilt


Abdel-Fattah, G. and S. Al-Amri. 2012. Induced systemic resistance in tomato plants against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici by different kinds of compost. African Journal of Biotechnology, 11: 12454-63.

Agrios, G. 1988. Studied the symptoms of Fusarium oxysporum. In, Plant Pathology. Acdemic Press, Inc. New York, USA.

Ajilogba, C. F. and O. O. Babalola. 2013. Integrated management strategies for tomato Fusarium wilt. Biocontrol science, 18: 117-27.

Amini, J. and D. Sidovich. 2010. The effects of fungicides on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici associated with Fusarium wilt of tomato. Journal of plant protection research, 50: 175-83.

Aslam, M. N., T. Mukhtar, M. A. Hussain and M. Raheel. 2017. Assessment of resistance to bacterial wilt incited by Ralstonia solanacearum in tomato germplasm. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, 124: 585-90.

Bodah, E. T. 2017. Root rot diseases in plants: A review of common causal agents and management strategies. Agricultural Research and Technology: Open Access Journal, 5: 555661.

Campbell, C. L. and D. Neher. 1994. Estimating disease severity and incidence. In, Epidemiology and Management of Root Diseases. Springer. Berlin, Germany.

Cox, K. L., K. Babilonia, T. Wheeler, P. He and L. Shan. 2019. Return of old foes-recurrence of bacterial blight and Fusarium wilt of cotton. Current opinion in plant biology, 50: 95-103.

Dodson, M., P. Williams and J. Bachmann. 2002. Organic Greenhouse Tomato Production. ATTRA: Fayetteville.

Fassihiani, A. 2000. Symptomless carriers of the causal agent of tomato wilt pathogen. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 2.

Fernández-García, E., I. Carvajal-Lérida, M. Jarén-Galán, J. Garrido-Fernández, A. Pérez-Gálvez and D. Hornero-Méndez. 2012. Carotenoids bioavailability from foods: From plant pigments to efficient biological activities. Food Research International, 46: 438-50.

Ghuffar, S., G. Irshad, F. Zhai, A. Aziz, H. M. A. M. Asadullah, N. Mehmood, H. Yang, A. Bashir, M. Z. Ahmed and M. F. Aslam. 2018. First report of Fusarium proliferatum causing fruit rot of grapes (Vitis vinifera) in Pakistan. International Journal of Phytopathology, 7: 85-88.

Gordon, T. R. 2017. Fusarium oxysporum and the Fusarium wilt syndrome. Annual review of phytopathology, 55: 23-39.

Hanaa, R. F., Z. A. Abdou, D. A. Salama, M. A. Ibrahim and H. Sror. 2011. Effect of neem and willow aqueous extracts on Fusarium wilt disease in tomato seedlings: Induction of antioxidant defensive enzymes. Annals of Agricultural Sciences, 56: 1-7.

Heydari, A., I. Misaghi and G. Balestra. 2007. Pre-emergence herbicides influence the efficacy of fungicides in controlling cotton seedling damping-off in the field. International Journal of Agricultural Research, 2: 1049-53.

Houterman, P. M., D. Speijer, H. L. Dekker, C. G. de Koster, B. J. Cornelissen and M. Rep. 2007. The mixed xylem sap proteome of Fusarium oxysporum infected tomato plants. Molecular plant pathology, 8: 215-21.

Ishikawa, R., K. Shirouzu, H. Nakashita, H.-Y. Lee, T. Motoyama, I. Yamaguchi, T. Teraoka and T. Arie. 2005. Foliar spray of validamycin A or validoxylamine A controls tomato Fusarium wilt. Phytopathology, 95: 1209-16.

Mandal, S., N. Mallick and A. Mitra. 2009. Salicylic acid-induced resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in tomato. Plant physiology and Biochemistry, 47: 642-49.

McGovern, R. 2015. Management of tomato diseases caused by Fusarium oxysporum. Crop Protection, 73: 78-92.

Mir, R. A., A. H. Wani, M. Y. Bhat, T. Un-Nisa and S. A. Pala. 2011. Incidence and intensity of powdery mildew fungi on the plants of papilionaceae. New York Science Journal, 4: 14-20.

Modesto, O. O., M. Anwar, Z. He, R. P. Larkin and C. W. Honeycutt. 2016. Survival potential of Phytophthora infestans sporangia in relation to environmental factors and late blight occurrence. Journal of plant protection research, 56: 73-81.

Myresiotis, C. K., G. S. Karaoglanidis, Z. Vryzas and E. Papadopoulou‐Mourkidou. 2012. Evaluation of plant‐growth‐promoting rhizobacteria, acibenzolar‐S‐methyl and hymexazol for integrated control of Fusarium crown and root rot on tomato. Pest management science, 68: 404-11.

Nikhate. 2012. Studies on wilt of tomato caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, M. P. K. V. Rahuri.

Patel, A., S. Katiyar and V. Prasad. 2016. Performances evaluation of different open source DEM using differential global positioning system (DGPS). The Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Science, 19: 7-16.

Pritesh, P. and R. Subramanian. 2011. PCR based method for testing Fusarium wilt resistance of tomato. African Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 3: 222-38.

Sheu, Z. and T. Wang. 2006. First report of Race 2 of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, the causal agent of fusarium wilt on tomato in Taiwan. Plant Disease, 90: 111-11.

Srinivas, C., D. N. Devi, K. N. Murthy, C. D. Mohan, T. Lakshmeesha, B. Singh, N. K. Kalagatur, S. Niranjana, A. Hashem and A. A. Alqarawi. 2019. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici causal agent of vascular wilt disease of tomato: Biology to diversity: A review. Saudi journal of biological sciences, 26: 1315-24.

Steel, R., J. Torrie and D. Dickey. 1996. Principles and Procedures of Statistics: A Biometrical Approach. McGraw Hill Book Company Inc: New York, USA.

Waiganjo, M., N. Wabule, D. Nyongesa, J. Kibaki, I. Onyango, S. Wepukhulu and N. Muthoka. 2006. Tomato production in Kirinyaga district, Kenya, a baseline survey report. Kenya Agricultural Research Institute. Nairobi, Kenya, pp. 1-43.

Xiong, W. and A. Zhan. 2018. Testing clustering strategies for metabarcoding‐based investigation of community, environment interactions. Molecular Ecology Resources, 18: 1326-38.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.33687/phytopath.010.03.3972


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Salman AHMAD

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.