Seedborne Bacteria of Orange and Black Colour Carrots in Turkey

Kubilay K. Bastas, Haris Butt, Aysegul Gur


Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is among the most economically important vegetable crops worldwide. Seedborne bacterial pathogens of carrot cause important damages to seed quality and yield of plants. In this study, seedborne bacteria were determined on some carrot seeds sown in Turkey. Seeds of different orange and black color varieties of carrot were collected from Eregli and Kasınhanı districts of Konya province, where the highest carrot production is reported. Subsamples of 10,000 seeds were soaked in 100 ml sterile saline (0.85% NaCl) with 0.02% Tween 20 overnight at 5 °C, YDCA, KB, MKM, MD5A and mTBM media were used for bacterial isolation and bacterial morphological characterization. Biochemical, physiological and molecular methods were used for the identification of the bacterial isolates. Pathogenicity tests of strains were performed on orange color carrots, and pathogenic strains induced a hypersensitive reaction in tobacco plants. The 60 pathogenic and saprophytic bacterial strains were obtained belong to Pseudomonaceae, Bacillaceae, and Xanthomonadaceae families. There were twenty-three seed samples on 5 different orange carrot cultivars Maestro, Bolero, Sireco, Natuna and Romans, and 11 black carrot genotype of traditional cultivar ‘Eregli’. Two pathogenic bacteria were defined as Xanthomonas hortorum pv. carotae and Pseudomonas viridiflava at different percent infestation ratios (17.39-18.18%) and (9.09-13.04%) on orange and black carrot seed samples. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first report of P. viridiflava on carrot seeds in Turkey.


Carrot; Bacteria; Seed; Identification; Xanthomonas hortorum pv. carotae; Pseudomonas viridiflava


Ahmad, T., M. Cawood, Q. Iqbal, A. Ariño, A. Batool, R. M. S. Tariq, M. Azam and S. Akhtar. 2019. Phytochemicals in Daucus carota and their health benefits. Foods, 8: 1-22.

Alivizatos, A. 1986. Tomato pith necrosis caused by Pseudomonas viridiflava. Annales de l'Institut Phytopathologique Benaki, 15: 40-47.

Almeida, I., K. Maciel, J. R. Neto and L. Beriam. 2013. Pseudomonas viridiflava in imported carrot seeds. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 8: 17-19.

Ark, P. and M. Gardner. 1944. Carrot bacterial blight as it affects the roots. Phytopathology, 34: 415-20.

Asma, M. 2010. Detection of Xanthomonas hortorum pv. carotae on Daucus carota international rules for seed testing. Seed Health Testing Methods International Seed Testing Association (ISTA). Bassersdorf, Switzerland.

Asma, M., R. de Vogel, B. Woudt and D. Krause. 2002. Evaluation of pathogenicity testing, rep-fingerprinting and PCR for the identification of Xanthomonas campestris pv. carotae, ISHI Report Bejo Zaden BV. Research Report, 9: 317-26.

Aysan, Y. 2001. Bacterial stem necrosis of tomato in the greenhouse in the eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey. 11th Congress of the Mediterranean Phytopathological Union and 3rd Congress of the Sociedade Portuguesa de Fitopatologia, Tekirdag, Turkey.

Aysan, Y., M. Mirik, A. Ala, F. Sahin and O. Cinar. 2003. First report of Pseudomonas viridiflava on melon in Turkey. Plant pathology, 52: 800-00.

Baker, K. F. and S. H. Smith. 1966. Dynamics of seed transmission of plant pathogens. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 4: 311-32.

Bashan, Y. and Y. Okon. 1986. Internal and external infections of fruits and seeds of peppers by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria. Canadian journal of botany, 64: 2865-71.

Bradbury, J. F. 1986. Guide to Plant Pathogenic Bacteria. CAB International.

Crowe, F. and R. Bafus. 2004. Evaluation of the Potential for Systemic Infection of Carrot Seed Crops by Xanthomonas campestris pv. carotae. Central Oregon Agricultural Research Center. USA, pp. 1.

Cubeta, M. and T. Kuan. 1986. Comparison of MD5 and XCS media and development of MD5A medium for detection of Xanthomonas campestris pv. carotae in carrot seed. Phytopathology, 76: 1109-09.

Demir, G. and N. Ustun. 2001. Pathogenic bacteria that determined in imported and exported plant propagation material. Journal of Turkish Phytopathology, 30: 60-72.

du Toit, L. J., F. J. Crowe, M. L. Derie, R. B. Simmons and G. Q. Pelter. 2005. Bacterial blight in carrot seed crops in the Pacific Northwest. Plant Disease, 89: 896-907.

FAOSTAT. 2019. Food and agriculture organization of the United Nations. FAOSTAT Statistics Database.

Gilbertson, R. 2002. Bacterial Leaf Blight of Carrot. American Phytopathological Society: St. Paul, MN, USA.

Godfrey, S. and J. Marshall. 2002. Identification of cold‐tolerant Pseudomonas viridiflava and P. marginalis causing severe carrot postharvest bacterial soft rot during refrigerated export from New Zealand. Plant pathology, 51: 155-62.

Goss, E. M., M. Kreitman and J. Bergelson. 2005. Genetic diversity, recombination and cryptic clades in Pseudomonas viridiflava infecting natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetics, 169: 21-35.

Goumans, D. and A. Chatzaki. 1998. Characterization and host range evaluation of Pseudomonas viridiflava from melon, blite, tomato, chrysanthemum and eggplant. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 104: 181-88.

Goumas, D., N. Malathrakis and A. Chatzaki. 1999. Characterization of Pseudomonas viridiflava associated with a new symptom on tomato fruit. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 105: 927-32.

Howard, R., J. Garland and W. Seaman. 1994. Diseases and Pests of Vegetable Crops in Canada. Canadian Phytopathological Society: Ottawa, Canada.

Kaçar, B. and V. Katkat. 1999. Gübreler ve Gübreleme Tekniği, Uludağ Ünv. Güçlendirme Vakfı Yayınları: Bursa, Turkey.

Kendrick, J. B. 1934. Bacterial blight of carrot. Journal of Agricultural Research, 49: 493-510.

Kim, H., M. Sasser and D. Sands. 1982. Selective medium for Xanthomonas campestris pv. translucens. Phytopathology.

King, E. O., M. K. Ward and D. E. Raney. 1954. Two simple media for the demonstration of pyocyanin and fluorescin. The Journal of laboratory and clinical medicine, 44: 301-07.

Klement, Z. 1963. Rapid detection of the pathogenicity of phytopathogenic pseudomonads. Nature, 199: 299-300.

Klement, Z., K. Rudolph and D. Sands. 1990. Methods in Phytobacteriology. Akademiai Kiado.

Komagata, K. 1986. Genus Curtobacterium. In, Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology.

Kovacs, N. 1956. Identification of Pseudomonas pyocyanea by the oxidase reaction. Nature, 178: 703-03.

Kuan, T.-L., G. Minsavage and R. Gabrielson. 1985. Detection of Xanthomonas campestris pv. carotae in carrot seed. Plant Disease, 69: 758-60.

Kuan, T. 1989. Detection of Xanthomonas campestris pv. carotae in carrot. In, Detection of Bacteria in Seed and Other Planting Material. American Phytopathological Society. St. Paul, MN, USA.

Kurt, S., E. M. Soylu, S. Soylu, F. M. Tok and F. Sahin. 2004. Determination of causal diseases agent on carrot plants growing in Amik Plain. Turkey 1st Plant Protection Congress Proceedings, Samsun.

Lelliott, R. A. and D. E. Stead. 1987. Methods for the Diagnosis of Bacterial Diseases of Plants. Blackwell Scientific Publications.

Livaneli, U. 2011. Most carrots in Turkey produced in Konya.

Macagnan, D., R. d. S. Romeiro, D. M. d. Macedo and D. A. Schurt. 2007. Podridão-mole em pós-colheita de batata (Solanum tuberosum) incitada por Pseudomonas viridiflava. Summa Phytopathologica, 33: 307-08.

Meguıre, R., J. Jones and M. Sasser. 1986. Tween media for semi-selective isolation of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria from soil and plant metarial. Plant Disease, 70: 887-89.

Meijerink, C. and E. Van Breukelen. 1995. Seedborne diseases: International Initiative standardizes test protocols. Prophyta. The Annual, 49: 58-65.

Meng, X., K. Umesh, R. Davis and R. Gilbertson. 2004. Development of PCR-based assays for detecting Xanthomonas campestris pv. carotae, the carrot bacterial leaf blight pathogen, from different substrates. Plant Disease, 88: 1226-34.

Mundt, J. O. and N. F. Hinkle. 1976. Bacteria within ovules and seeds. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 32: 694-98.

Nishiyama, K., T. Fukunishi, T. Terada and A. Ezuka. 1979. Bacterial blight of carrot Daucus carota var. sativa caused by Xanthomonas carotae a bacterial disease new to Japan. Japanese Journal of Phytopathology, 45: 683-88.

Parks, R. and F. Crowe. 1999. Sensitivity of Xanthomonas campestris pv. carotae to copper pesticides in central Oregon carrot seed fields. Oregon State University, Integrated Plant Protection Center.

Pscheidt, J. W. and C. M. Ocamb. 2001. Pacific Northwest Disease Management Handbook. Oregon State University: Oregon, USA.

Saad, S. M. and E. K. Wade. 1972. Bacterial blight of carrot in Wisconsin. Plant Disease Reporter, 56: 744-46.

Schaad, N. W. 1988. Initial Identification of Common Genera. In, Laboratory Guide for Identification of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria. American Phytopathological Society Press. St. Paul. MN. USA.

Schaad, N. W., J. B. Jones and W. Chun. 2001. Laboratory guide for the identification of plant pathogenic bacteria. American Phytopathological Society: St. Paul, MN, USA.

Strandberg, J. O. 2000. Carrot (Daucus carota L. subsp. sativus (Hoffm.) Arcang.).

Taylor, J. 1970. The quantitative estimation of the infection of bean seed with Pseudomonas phaseolicola (Burkh.) Dowson. Annals of Applied Biology, 66: 29-36.

Thornley, M. J. 1960. The differentiation of Pseudomonas from other Gram‐negative bacteria on the basis of arginine metabolism. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 23: 37-52.

TUIK. 2019., Accessed 15.12.2021.

Umesh, K., R. Davis and R. Gilbertson. 1996. Seed contamination thresholds associated with occurrence of bacterial blight of carrots and development of a DNA based detection method for Xanthomonas campestris pv. carotae. Abstract Phytopathology.

Umesh, K., R. Davis and R. Gilbertson. 1998. Seed contamination thresholds for development of carrot bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. carotae. Plant Disease, 82: 1271-75.

Ustun, N. and H. Saygili. 2001. Pith necrosis on greenhouse tomatoes in Aegean region of Turkey. 11th Congress of Mediterranean Phytopathological Union and 3rd Congress of Sociedade Portuguesa de Fitopatologia.

Watson, R. 1948. Carrot bacterial blight control in Idaho. Plant Disease Reporter, 32: 338-39.

Weber, C. E., M. Butler, C. Campbell, B. Holliday and J. Klauzer. 2004. Management guide for drip irrigation on seed carrots in central Oregon. Oregon State University EM 8880-E, Corvallis.

Williford, R. and N. Schaad. 1984. Agar medium for selective isolation of Xanthomonas campestris pv. carotae from carrot seeds. Phytopathology, 74: 1142-42.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.33687/phytopath.010.03.3951


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Kubilay K. Bastas, Haris Butt, Aysegul Gur

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.