Prevalence, Intensity, and Morphological Variability of Wheat Blotch (Zymoseptoria tritici) in Oromia, Ethiopia

Girma Ababa, Girma Adugna, Bekele Hundie


Studies of the wheat Zymoseptoria tritici blotch (ZTB) status in different locations, on agronomic practice, and pathogen variability has not yet been studied in Ethiopia. As a result, the goal of this study was to determine ZTB's distribution and intensity, as well as the morphological variability of isolates. In Oromia's central-southeastern region, zones and districts were purposefully chosen, whereas kebeles were determined via a systematic sampling procedure. In a generalized linear model (GLM), the mean comparison of fixed effects was examined using least significant difference (LSD) tests. Colony texture, shapes, and colors were used to identify isolate variability. Pearson correlation was used to examine the relationship between disease intensity and the independent variable, and multiple regression analysis was used to estimate the magnitudes of the association. A total of 108 fields were examined, with the percent occurrence of zones (88.9 to 100%) and districts (77.8 to 100%) recorded. ZTB intensity was not significantly different across districts (p < 0.05) while severity was significantly different across zones (p < 0.01). Weed infestation (r = 0.78 and r = 0.20) and growth phases (r = 0.72 and r = 0.36) had a positive correlation, although plowing frequency (r = -0.77 and r = -0.43) had a negative correlation with incidence and severity. There are 43 isolates classified into four colors, three textures, and three growth forms. The ZTB epidemics in current research areas are need more consideration and they should be prioritized for integrated management. Our data suggest that weed control, soil tillage, and crop rotation are all effective ways to mitigate the effects of wheat ZTB.


Prevalence; Intensity; Variability; STB; Wheat


Ababa Tarafa, G. 2020. Distribution, Intensity and Variability of Septoria Blotch (Septoria tritici) in Central-Southeastern Oromia, Ethiopia, and Seedling Resistance of Wheat Cultivars, Jimma University.

Abebe, T., S. Alamerew and L. Tulu. 2017. Genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance for yield and its related traits in rainfed lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes at Fogera and Pawe, Ethiopia. Advances in Crop Science and Technology, 5: 1-8.

Abeyo, B., E. Firdisa, T. Kebede and G. Solomon. 2011. Screening wheat germplasm for Septoria resistance in Ethiopia. International Symposium on Mycosphaerella and Stagonospora Diseases of Cereals, 8; Mexico City (Mexico); 10-14 Sep 2011. Book of Abstracts. ^ TInternational Symposium on Mycosphaerella and Stagonospora Diseases of Cereals, 8; Mexico City (Mexico); 10-14 Sep 2011. Book of Abstracts^ ADuveiller, E. Singh, PK^ AMexico, DF (Mexico)^ BCIMMYT^ C2011.

Agrios, G. 2012. Plant pathology. Elsevier.

Ansar, M., N. M. Cheema and M. H. Leitch. 2010. Effect of agronomic practices on the development of septoria leaf blotch and its subsequent effect on growth and yield components of wheat. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 43: 2125-38.

Ayad, D., R. Sayoud, K. Benbelkacem and Z. Bouznad. 2014. La tache septorienne du blé: Première signalisation de la présence en Algérie des deux Mating types du téleomorphe Mycosphaerella graminicola (Fuckel) Schröter,(anamorphe: Septoria tritici Rob. ex Desm.) et diversité phénotypique de l'agent pathogène. Nature & Technology: 34.

Ayele, B., B. Eshetu, B. Betelehem, H. Bekele, D. Melaku, T. Asnakech, A. Melkamu, A. Amare, M. Kiros and A. Fekede. 2008. Review of two decades of research on diseases of small cereal crops. Increasing crop production through improved plant protection, 1: 375-416.

Azanaw, A., Y. Ebabuye, A. Ademe, S. Gizachew and Z. Tahir. 2017. Survey of Septoria Leaf Blotch (Septari atritici Roberge in Desmaz) on Wheat in North Gondar, Ethiopia. Abyssinia Journal of Science and Technology, 2: 11-18.

Bailey, K., B. Gossen, G. Lafond, P. Watson and D. Derksen. 2001. Effect of tillage and crop rotation on root and foliar diseases of wheat and pea in Saskatchewan from 1991 to 1998: univariate and multivariate analyses. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 81: 789-803.

Bankina, B., Z. Gaile, O. Balodis, G. Bimšteine, M. Katamadze, D. Kreita, L. Paura and I. Priekule. 2014. Harmful winter wheat diseases and possibilities for their integrated control in Latvia. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B—Soil & Plant Science, 64: 615-22.

Bentata, F., M. Labhilili, A. Merrahi, F. Gaboun, J. Ibijbijen, A. El Aissami, S. Amiri, M. Boulif and M. Jliben. 2011. Determination of the genetic diversity of a population of Septoria tritici on broad wheat via cultural and pathogenic characterization. Revue Marocaine de Protection des Plantes, 2: 1-10.

Bürger, J., A. Günther, F. de Mol and B. Gerowitt. 2012. Analysing the influence of crop management on pesticide use intensity while controlling for external sources of variability with Linear Mixed Effects Models. Agricultural Systems, 111: 13-22.

Cooke, B. 2006. Disease assessment and yield loss. In, The epidemiology of plant diseases. Springer.

Dalvand, M., D. Zafari, M. Soleimani Pari, R. Roohparvar and S. Tabib Ghafari. 2018. Studying Genetic Diversity in Zymoseptoria tritici, Causal Agent of Septoria Tritici Blotch, by Using ISSR and SSR Markers. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 20: 1307-16.

Eyal, Z. 1981. Integrated control of Septoria diseases of wheat. Plant Disease, 65: 763-68.

Eyal, Z. 1987. The Septoria diseases of wheat: concepts and methods of disease management. Cimmyt.

Fernandez, M. R., C. F. Stevenson, K. Hodge, F. Dokken‐Bouchard, P. G. Pearse, F. Waelchli, A. Brown and C. Peluola. 2016. Assessing effects of climatic change, region and agronomic practices on leaf spotting of bread and durum wheat in the western Canadian Prairies, from 2001 to 2012. Agronomy Journal, 108: 1180-95.

Ghini, R., E. Hamada and W. Bettiol. 2008. Climate change and plant diseases. Scientia Agricola, 65: 98-107.

Gilbert, J. and S. Woods. 2001. Leaf spot diseases of spring wheat in southern Manitoba farm fields under conventional and conservation tillage. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 81: 551-59.

Gilchrist, L. and H. Dubin. 2002. Fusarium head blight. Bread wheat: Improvement and production (9251048096).

Gladders, P., N. Paveley, I. Barrie, N. Hardwick, M. Hims, S. Langton and M. Taylor. 2001. Agronomic and meteorological factors affecting the severity of leaf blotch caused by Mycosphaerella graminicola in commercial wheat crops in England. Annals of Applied Biology, 138: 301-11.

Griffiths, E. and H. Ao. 1980. Variation in Septoria nodorum. Annals of Applied Biology, 94: 294-96.

Hailu, E. and G. Woldeab. 2015. Survey of Rust and Septoria Leaf Blotch Diseases of Wheat in Central Ethiopia and Virulence Diversity of Stem Rust Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. Adv Crop Sci Tech 3: 166. doi: 10.4172/2329-8863.10001 66 Page 2 of 5 Volume 3• Issue 2• 1000166 Adv Crop Sci Tech ISSN: 2329-8863 ACST, an open access journal identify. Puccinia graminis.

HARRAT, W. and Z. BOUZNAD. 2018. Prevalence, cultural and pathogenic characterization of Zymoseptoria tritici, agent of wheat septoria leaf blotch, in Algeria. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 13: 2146-53.

Hirpa, G. 2018. Virulence Spectrum of Stem Rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) and Reactions of Wheat Varieties to Dominant Races in Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia.

Holloway, G. 2014. Septoria tritici blotch of wheat. DEPI information note series may.

Kema, G. H. and C. H. van Silfhout. 1997. Genetic variation for virulence and resistance in the wheat-Mycosphaerella graminicola pathosystem III. Comparative seedling and adult plant experiments. Phytopathology, 87: 266-72.

Krupinsky, J., A. Halvorson, D. Tanaka and S. Merrill. 2007. Nitrogen and tillage effects on wheat leaf spot diseases in the northern Great Plains. Agronomy Journal, 99: 562-69.

Lovell, D., T. Hunter, S. Powers, S. Parker and F. Van den Bosch. 2004. Effect of temperature on latent period of septoria leaf blotch on winter wheat under outdoor conditions. Plant Pathology, 53: 170-81.

McDonald, B. A. and C. C. Mundt. 2016. How knowledge of pathogen population biology informs management of Septoria tritici blotch. Phytopathology, 106: 948-55.

McDonald, M. C., B. A. McDonald and P. S. Solomon. 2015. Recent advances in the Zymoseptoria tritici–wheat interaction: insights from pathogenomics. Frontiers in plant science, 6: 102.

Mehra, L., U. Adhikari, C. Cowger and P. S. Ojiambo. 2018. Septoria nodorum blotch of wheat (2167-9843). PeerJ Preprints.

Mekonnen, T., T. Haileselassie, S. B. Goodwin and K. Tesfayea. 2020. Genetic diversity and population structure of Zymoseptoria tritici in Ethiopia as revealed by microsatellite markers. Fungal Genetics and Biology: 103413.

Mergoum, M., P. Singh, S. Ali, E. Elias, J. A. Anderson, K. Glover and T. Adhikari. 2007. Reaction of elite wheat genotypes from the northern Great Plains of North America to Septoria diseases. Plant Disease, 91: 1310-15.

Pietravalle, S., M. Shaw, S. Parker and F. Van Den Bosch. 2003. Modeling of relationships between weather and Septoria tritici epidemics on winter wheat: a critical approach. Phytopathology, 93: 1329-39.

Ponomarenko, A., S. B. Goodwin and G. H. Kema. 2011. Septoria tritici blotch (STB) of wheat. Septoria tritici blotch (STB) of wheat.

Saari, E. and J. Prescott. 1975. Scale for appraising the foliar intensity of wheat diseases. Plant Disease Reporter.


Saidi, A., M. Eslahi and N. Safaie. 2012. Efficiency of Septoria tritici sporulation on different culture media. Trakia J. Sci, 10: 15-18.

Sharma, R. and E. Duveiller. 2007. Advancement toward new spot blotch resistant wheats in South Asia. Crop Science, 47: 961-68.

Shipton, W., W. Boyd, A. Rosielle and B. Shearer. 1971. The common Septoria diseases of wheat. The Botanical Review, 37: 231-62.

Steinberg, G. 2015. Cell biology of Zymoseptoria tritici: Pathogen cell organization and wheat infection. Fungal Genetics and Biology, 79: 17-23.

Stewart, R. B. and D. Yiroou. 1967. Index of plant diseases in Ethiopia. Bull. Exp. Stn Coll. Agric. Halle Selassie Univ., 30.

Stokes, M. E., C. S. Davis and G. G. Koch. 2012. Categorical data analysis using SAS. SAS institute.

Tadesse, Y., A. Chala and B. Kassa. 2018. Survey of Septoria Tritici Blotch (Septoria Tritici) of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Central Highlands of Ethiopia. American Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 6: 36-41.

Takele, A., A. Lencho, W. Getaneh, E. Hailu and B. Kassa. 2015. Status of wheat Septoria leaf blotch (Septaria tritici Roberge in Desmaz) in south west and Western Shewa zones of Oromiya regional state, Ethiopia. Research in Plant Sciences, 3: 43-48.

Teklay, A., M. Muez and L. Muruts. 2015. Field response of wheat genotypes to septoria tritici blotch in Tigray, Ethiopia. Journal of Natural Sciences Research, 5: 146-52.

Tsedaley, B., G. Adugna and F. Lemessa. 2016. Distribution and importance of sorghum anthracnose (Colletotrichum sublineolum) in southwestern and western Ethiopia. Plant Pathology Journal, 15: 75-85.

Watanabe, T. 2010. Pictorial atlas of soil and seed fungi: morphologies of cultured fungi and key to species. CRC press.

Zhong, Z., T. C. Marcel, F. E. Hartmann, X. Ma, C. Plissonneau, M. Zala, A. Ducasse, J. Confais, J. Compain and N. Lapalu. 2017. A small secreted protein in Zymoseptoria tritici is responsible for avirulence on wheat cultivars carrying the Stb6 resistance gene. New Phytologist, 214: 619-31.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.33687/phytopath.010.03.3899


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Girma Ababa Tarafa

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.