Phytonematodes Associating Wheat in North Eastern Egypt and Pathogenicity of Heterodera avenae on Certain Cereal Cultivars
A survey of plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) associating wheat in Ismailia governorate, north eastern Egypt was carried-out during 2016/2017 and 2017/2018 growing seasons. Results showed that seven PPNs genera and/or species were found associating wheat roots. These genera and/or species, in descending order of frequency, were: Tylenchorhynchus spp. (14%), Helicotylenchus spp. (10%), Heterodera avenae (8%), Ditylenchus spp. (5%), Meloidogyne javanica (4%), Pratylenchus spp. and Xiphinema spp. (3%, each). Two screening pot experiments, in two consecutive growing seasons (2016/2017 and 2017/2018) were carried out to determine the host suitability of 15 Egyptian cereal cultivars including bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare) and oat (Avena sativa) to the cereal cyst nematode, Heterodera avenae, under greenhouse conditions. Results of both experiments were very similar and showed that oat cv. Baladi and wheat cv. Giza 171 were highly susceptible, while wheat cvs. Masr 1, Masr 2, Masr 3, Sakha 95, Seds 1, Seds 12, and Shandawel 1 were susceptible. However, barley cvs. Giza 135, Giza 123, Giza 124, and Giza 125 were found to be moderately resistant to the tested nematode. H. avenae suppressed (P ≤ 0.05) the dry weights of roots, shoots and spikes of the inoculated plants, compared to the non-inoculated checks. Another greenhouse pot experiment was carried out during the wheat-growing season 2018/2019 to determine the effect of different initial population densities (Pi) of H. avenae on the growth parameters of wheat cv. Giza 171 and on nematode reproduction. Results showed that as the nematode Pi increased, both the wheat growth parameters and the nematode reproduction factor (Rf) were decreased (P ≤ 0.05).
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