Effect of Stem Rust Infection on Grain Yield and Yield Components of Some Wheat Cultivars in Egypt

Mamdouh A. Asmmawy, Walid M. El-Orabey, Mohamed Nazim, Atef A. Shahin


Stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici is an important disease of wheat worldwide. To estimate grain yield losses due to stem rust, replicated experiments including twelve wheat cultivars i.e.  Gemmeiza 7, Gemmeiza 9, Gemmeiza 10, Gemmeiza 11, Sakha 61, Sakha 93, Sakha 94, Sids 12, Sids 13, Giza 168, Misr 1 and Misr 2 were evaluated for adult plant resistance at Sakha Research Station, Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt during 2011/12 and 2012/13 growing seasons. The field experiment was surrounded by spreader area of highly susceptible varieties i.e. Morroco and Max inoculated with a mixture of stem rust races as a source of inoculum. Disease severity was recorded each 10 days and area under disease progress curve (AUDPC) was estimated and ranged from 100 to 475 in 2011/12 and 100 to 750 in 2012/13. It was found that, yield losses ranged between 2.47 % in the wheat cultivar Misr 2 to 6.29 % in the wheat cultivar Sids 12 during 2011/12, while during 2012/13 ranged from 1.96 % in the wheat cultivar Gemmeiza 7 to      8.21 % in the wheat cultivar Misr 1. High correlation was found between yield losses with disease severity and AUDPC.


Wheat; Puccinia graminis; partial resistance; yield losses


CIMMYT, 2005. Sounding the alarm on global stem rust. An assessment of Ug99 in Kenya and Ethiopia and potential impact in neighboring regions and beyond. 29 May 2005, pp. 26.

Colpauzos, J., A.P Roelfs, M.E. Madson, F.B. Martin and R.D. Wilconxson. 1976. A new model to measure yield losses caused by stem rust in spring wheat. Agric. Exp. Sta. Univ. Minnesota, Tech. Bull. 307:1-23.

Denbel, W., A. Badebo and T. Alemu. 2013. Evaluation of Ethiopian commercial wheat cultivars for resistance to stem rust of wheat race UG99. Intl. J. of Agro. and Plant Prod. 4:15-24.

El-Shamy, M.M., A.S Minaas and M.H. Abd El-Kader. 2011. Effect of sowing density of some susceptible bread wheat cultivars on tolerance to leaf rust disease. Zagazig J. Agric. Res. 38:339-352.

Emebet, F., A. Belayneh And A. Zerihun. 2006. Seedling and adult plant resistance in Ethiopian wheat varieties to local Puccinia graminis isolates. In: Kinyua MG, Kamwaga J, Owuoche JO, Ndiema AC, Njau PN, Friesen K, Ouya D, (eds). Proceedings of the 12th Regional Wheat Workshop for Eastern, Central and Southern Africa. Nakuru, 22-26 November 2004. CIMMYT and KARI, Mexico. D.F. pp: 86 – 89.

Hassan, G. 2004. Diallel analysis of some important parameters in wheat (Triticum aestivum L) under irrigated and rainfed conditions. Ph.D. thesis submitted to NWFP Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan.

Hiebert, C.W., T.G Fetch, T. Zegeye, J.B. Thomas, D.J. Somers, D.G Humphreys, B.D. McCallum, S. Cloutier, D. Singh and D.R. Knott. 2011. Genetics and mapping of seedling resistance to Ug99 stem rust in Canadian wheat cultivars ‘Peace’ and ‘AC Cadillac’. Theor Appl. Genet. 122:143-149.

Jin, Y., L. Szabo, M. Rouse, T. Fetch, Z.A Pretorius, R. Wanyera and P. Njau. 2009. Detection of virulence to resistance gene Sr36 within race TTKS lineage of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. Plant Dis. 93:367-370.

Jin, Y., L. Szabo, Z.A. Pretorius, R. Singh, R. Ward and T. Fetch. 2008. Detection of virulence to resistance gene Sr 24 within race TTKS of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. Plant Dis. 92:923-926.

Jin, Y., R.P. Singh, R.W. Ward, R. Wanyera, M. Kinyua, P. Njau, T. Fetch, Z.A. Pretorius and A. Yahyaoui. 2007. Characterization of seedling infection types and adult plant infection responses of monogenic Sr gene lines to race TTKS of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. Plant Dis. 91:1096-1099.

Khanna, R., U.K. Bansal and R.G. Saini. 2005. Genetics of adult plant stripe rust resistance in CSP44, a selection from Aust. wheat. J. of Genet. 84:337-340.

Leonard, K.J. and L.J. Szabo. 2005. Stem rust of small grains and grasses caused by Puccinia graminis. Mol. Plant Pathol. 6: 99-111.

Leonard, K.J. and L.J. Szabo. 2005. Stem rust of small grains and grasses caused by Puccinia graminis. Mol. Plant Pathol. 6:99-111.

Loughman, R., K. Jayasena and J. Majewski. 2005. Yield loss and fungicide control of stem rust of wheat. Aust. J. of Agric. Res. 56:91-96.

Macharia, J.K. and R. Wanyera. 2012. Effect of stem rust race Ug99 on grain yield and yield components of wheat cultivars in Kenya. J. of Agric. Sci. and technol. 2:423-431.

Ochoa, J. and J.E. Parlevliet. 2007. Effect of partial resistance to barley leaf rust, Puccinia hordei on the yield of three barley cultivars. Euphytica. 153:309-312.

Pandey, H.N., T.C.M. Menon and M.V. Rao. 1989. A simple formula for calculating area under disease progress curve. Rachis. 8:38-39.

Park, R., T. Fetch, D. Hodson, Y. Jin, K. Nazari, M. Prashar and Z. Pretorius. 2011. International surveillance of wheat rust pathogen: progress and challenges. Euphytica. 179:109-117.

Peterson, R.F., A.B. Campbell and A.E. Hannah. 1948. A diagrammatic scale for estimating rust intensity on leaves and stems of cereals. Can. J. Res. 60:496-500.

Pretorius, Z.A., K.W. Pakendori, G.F. Marais, R. Prins and J.S. Komen. 2007. Challenges for sustainable cereals rust control in South Africa, in: J.C. Fegent (ED.) Special Issue: Global Landscapes in Cereal Rust Control, Aust. J. of Agric. Res. 58:593-601.

Pretorius, Z.A., R.P. Singh, W.W. Wagoire and T.S. Payne . 2000. Detection of virulence to wheat stem rust resistance gene Sr 31 in Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici in Uganda. Plant Dis. 84:203.

Roelfs, A.P. and J.W Martens. 1988. An international system of nomenclature for Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. Phytopathol. 78:526-533.

Roelfs, A.P., 1985. The cereal rusts, Vol. II: diseases, distribution, epidemiology and control. Orlando (FL): Academic Press. Chapter 1, Wheat and rye stem rust. p. 3-37.

Roelfs, A.P., R.P. Singh and E.E. Saari. 1992. Rust diseases of wheat: Concepts and methods of disease management. CIMMYT, Mexico, D.F.

Shaner, G., H.W. Ohm and R.E. Finnay . 1978. Response of susceptibility and slow leaf rusting of wheats to infection by Puccinia recondita. Phytopathol. 68:47-475.

Singh, R.P., D.P Hodson, J. Huerta-Espino, Y. Jin, P. Njau, R. Wanyera, S.A. Herrera-Foessel and W.R. Ward. 2008. Will stem rust destroy the world’s wheat crops? Adv. Agron. 98:271-309.

Smedegaard-Petersen, V. and K. Tolstrup. 1985. The limiting effect of disease resistance on yield. Annual Review Phytopathol. 23:475-490.

Snedecor, G.W., 1957. Statistical Methods, 5th eds.Iowa State College Press, Ames, Iowa. Wang, Z.L.; L.H. Li; Z.H. He; X. Duan; Y.L. Zhou; X.M. Chen; M. Lillemo; R.P. Singh; H. Wang and H. Xia XC (2005): Seedling and adult plant resistance to powdery mildew in Chinese bread wheat cultivars and lines. Plant Dis. 89:457-463.

Wanyera, R., M.G. Kinyua, Y. Jin and R.P Singh. 2006. The spread of stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, with virulence on Sr 31 in wheat in Eastern Africa. Plant Dis. 90:113.

Wanyera R., J.K. Macharia, S.M. Kilonoz and J.W. Kamundia. 2009. Foliar fungicides to control wheat stem rust, race TTKS (Ug99), in Kenya. Plant Dis. 93:929-932.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.33687/phytopath.002.03.0308


Copyright (c) 2013 Mamdouh A. Asmmawy, Walid M. El-Orabey, Mohamed Nazim, Atef A. Shahin

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.