Aqsa Zafar, Arshad Javaid, Ejaz Ahmed, Iqra Haider Khan, Hamza Shehzad, Aneela Anwar


In the present study, an azo dye 4-hydroxyazobenzene was synthesized and its antifungal activity against a notorious soil-borne plant pathogen Macrophomina phaseolina was evaluated. The 4-hydroxyazobenzene was synthesized by azo coupling reaction between aniline diazonium salt and activated phenol. The azo coupling preferably occurred at para position of the phenol ring since the charge density get reinforced at this position and to minimize the steric hindrance between ortho positioned hydroxyl group. Azo coupling involved an electrophilic substitution reaction of phenyl diazonium cation with phenolate ion, the coupling partner. In vitro antifungal activity of the compound was assessed by dissolving the compound in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and preparing its different concentrations (ranging from 0.78 to 100 mg mL-1) in malt extract broth. All the concentrations of synthesized compound significantly (P≤0.05) reduced biomass of M. phaseolina by 31–49%. This study concludes that 4-hydroxyazobenzene can be used for control of M. phaseolina.


Antifungal; Azo dye; 4-Hydroxyazobenzene; Macrophomina phaseolina

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