Faisal Sohail Fateh, Tariq Mukhtar, Asim Mehmood, Saif Ullah, Munawar Raza Kazmi


Mango (Mangifera indica) is a popular fruit in Pakistan and ranks second to citrus. Pakistani mangoes have a large export potential in overseas markets that has yet to be realized. In Pakistan, important fruit trees such as citrus, mango, guava, etc. are facing a decline. Among these fruits, mango decline has been addressed strongly as they are important foreign exchange earnings and export items. In the case of mango, the decline has different forms, generally known as progressive, slow decline, or dieback; quick dieback, and sudden death. This type of condition is most common in poorly managed orchards that do not follow correct nutrition, plant protection, or irrigation techniques. Such a drop can be easily addressed if orchards are cultivated using the greatest possible production methods. The updated studies on the occurrence of mango decline are necessary to become a reference for further research and management strategies. Therefore, the present study was designed for disease estimation in the mango-growing areas of the Punjab province of Pakistan. According to the results, maximum mean disease severity of 2.70 was observed in district Bahawalpur followed by Khanewal (2.30), Multan (2.11), and Muzaffar Garh (2.00). The minimum disease severity (1.90) was recorded in Rahim Yar Khan district. Similarly, the maximum mean disease incidence (100%) was found in Khanewal followed by Bahawalpur (99.30%), Muzaffar Garh (96.00%), and Multan (96.00%) while the minimum disease incidence (90.00%) was observed in Rahim Yar Khan. The disease index which gives the actual picture of the disease was found to be the maximum in Bahawalpur (53.30%) followed by Khanewal (46.50%), Rahim Yar Khan (39.10%), and Muzaffar Garh (37.30%) while the minimum disease index of 36.89 was found in Multan district. This information will serve as the baseline information for research and management strategies in mango decline.


Mango; Decline; fungi; prevalence; Punjab

Full Text:



Al-Adawi, A.O., Al-Jabri, R.M., Deadman, M.L., Barnes, I., Wingfield, B., Wingfield, M.J., 2013. The mango sudden decline pathogen, Ceratocystis manginecans, is vectored by Hypocryphalus mangiferae (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) in Oman. European Journal of Plant Pathology 135, 243-251.

Al-Adawi, A.O., Deadman, M.L., Al-Rawahi, A.K., Khan, A.J., Al-Maqbali, Y.M., 2003. Diplodia theobromae associated with sudden decline of mango in the Sultanate of Oman. Plant Pathology 52, 419-419.

Al-Adawi, A.O., Deadman, M.L., Al Rawahi, A.K., Al-Maqbali, Y.M., Al-Jahwari, A.A., Al-Saadi, B.A., Al-Amri, I., Wingfield, M.J., 2006. Aetiology and causal agents of mango sudden decline disease in the Sultanate of Oman. European Journal of Plant Pathology 116, 247-254.

Anonymous, 2013. Fruit, vegetables and condiments statistics of Pakistan. Ministry of Food Security and Research. , Government of Pakistan.

Anonymous, 2016. Fruit, vegetables and condiments statistics of Pakistan. Ministry of Food Security and Research, Government of Pakistan.

Fateh, F.S., Kazmi, M.R., Ahmad, I., Ashraf, M., 2006. Ceratocystis fimbriata isolated from vascular bundles of declining mango trees in Sindh, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 38, 1257-1259.

Fateh, F.S., Kazmi, M.R., Arif, A.M., Ahmad, I., Rashid, A., 2016. Role of different fungi for development of decline symptoms in citrus, mango and guava. Science International 28, 1263-1267.

Fateh, F.S., Kazmi, M.R., Jabeen, A., 2009. Different forms of mango sudden-death syndrome. Science Technology and Development 28, 34-41.

Fateh, F.S., Mukhtar, T., Kazmi, M.R., Abbassi, N.A., Arif, A.M., 2017. Prevalence of citrus decline in district Sargodha. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences 54, 9-13.

Iqbal, M.A., Ahmad, R., Mukhtar, T., Khan, H.U., 2004b. Evaluation of various nematicides against citrus nematode (Tylenchulus semipenetrans Cobb) on highly and slightly diseased trees in the citrus orchards. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology 16, 17-22.

Iqbal, M.A., Ahmad, R.M., T., Khan, H.U., 2004a. Interrelationship of citrus nematode (Tylenchulus semipenetrans Cobb) population and seasonal fluctuations in Sargodha district. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology 16, 60-62.

Iqbal, M.A., Mukhtar, T., Ahmad, R., 2005a. Potentiality of some plants to control citrus nematode (Tylenchulus semipenetrans). Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology 17, 36-42.

Iqbal, M.A., Mukhtar, T., Ahmad, R., 2007a. Effect of soil types on the movement and infection of citrus nematode, Tylenchulus semipenetrans. Pakistan Journal of Nematology 25, 69-72.

Iqbal, M.A., Mukhtar, T., Ahmad, R., Khan, H.U., 2005b. Relative susceptibility/resistance of citrus rootstocks to citrus nematode (Tylenchulus semipenetrans). Pakistan Journal of Nematology 23, 311-315.

Iqbal, Z., Valeem, E.E., Shahbaz, M., Ahmad, K., Khan, Z.I., Malik, M.T., Danish, M., 2007b. Determination of different decline disorders in mango orchards of the Punjab, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 39, 1313-1318.

Irshad, U., Mukhtar, T., Ashfaq, M., Kayani, M.Z., Kayani, S.B., Hanif, M., Aslam, S., 2012. Pathogenicity of citrus nematode (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) on Citrus jambhiri. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences 22, 1014-1018.

Jiskani, M.M., 2002. Dying of mango orchards needs special attention. Sindh Agriculture University, Pakistan 1, 1-7.

Kazmi, M.R., Farooq, S.I., Fateh, F.S., Hameed, S., Fahmeed, F., Ashraf, M., Ahmed, I., 2007. Identification of phytoplasma from mango trees showing sudden death phenomenon through molecular techniques. Pakistan Journal of Botany 39, 2153-2157.

Kazmi, M.R., Fateh, F.S., Majeed, K., Muhammad, A., Kashkhely, I.H., Ahmad, I., Jabeen, A., 2005. Incidence and etiology of mango sudden death phenomenon. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology 17, 154-158.

Khan, M.A., 2010. Report on enterprise based survey of horticulture sector. United Nations industrial development organization traderelated technical assistance(TRTA) programme Pakistan, Pakistan, p. 27.

Khaskheli, M.I., Jiskani, M.M., Soomro, M.H., Talpur, M.A., Poussio, G.B., 2011. Prevalence of mango sudden decline/death syndrome (MSDS) on various varieties at the orchards of different age in the vicinity of Tando Qaiser, Hyderabad, Sindh. Pakistan Journal of Agriculture Agricultural Engineering and Veterinary Sciences 27, 160-167.

Khushk, A.M., Smith, L.E.D., 1996. A preliminary analysis of the marketing of mango in Sindh Province, Pakistan. The Pakistan Development Review 35, 241-255.

Malik, M.T., Dasti, A.A., Khan, S.M., 2005. Mango decline disorders prevailing in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology 17, 187-191.

Masood, A., Saeed, S., Iqbal, N., Malik, M.T., Kazmi, M.R., 2010. Methodology for the evaluation of symptoms severity of mango sudden death syndrome in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 42, 1289-1299.

Masood, A., Saeed, S., Silveira, S., Akem, C.N., Hussain, N., Farooq, M., 2011. Quick decline of mango in Pakistan: survey and pathogenicity of fungi isolated from mango tree and bark beetle. Pakistan Journal of Botany 43, 1793-1798.

Montoya, M.M., Wingfield, M.J., 2006. A review of Ceratocystis sensu stricto with special reference to the species complexes C. coerulescens and C. fimbriata. Revista Facultad Nacional de Agronomía Medellín 59, 3045-3375.

Mukhtar, T., Ahmad, R., Kayani, M.Z., Irshad, G., 2007. Occurrence of citrus nematode (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) in Sargodha district. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology 19, 40-43.

Naqvi, S.A.M.H., 2004. Diagnosis and management of certain important fungal diseases of citrus, Diseases of Fruits and Vegetables Volume I. Springer, pp. 247-290.

Rehman, A., Saleem, M., Mehboob, S., Bokhari, A.A., 2011. Fungi associated with rhizosphere soil in mango decline orchards and their in vitro control. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology 23, 112-117.

Saeed, M., Mukhtar, T., Rehman, M.A., 2019. Temporal fluctuations in the population of citrus nematode (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) in the Pothowar region of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 51, 2257-2263.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33804/pp.006.01.4023


  • There are currently no refbacks.