Amir Afzal, Muhammad Ijaz, Muhammad Rafique


Stripe rust is the most important biotic constraint in wheat production. Deployment of resistant wheat cultivars is the most practical way to decrease yield losses attributed to stripe rust. Usage of wild germplasm of wheat is the best technique to detect new resistant genes for the evolution of new varieties and mainstream of these hold capacity for disease resistance. Traditional procedures of gene identification by using conventional screening through diversified races do not generate accurate data. In conventional breeding, transferring desired traits, for instance, stripe rust resistance, from a donor parent is offered into a genotype of interest, typically high yielding. Identification of the sources of resistance by conventional screening through diversified races and backcross breeding is time-consuming which could be avoided through the usage of DNA markers. Marker-assisted selection (MAS) is practiced for the improvement of a variety of traits in wheat around the world through introgression of disease resistance against diseases including stripe rust, which may in any case partially support in providing the anticipated result. MAS has been valuable for the development of quite a lot of significant traits such as resistance against diseases. Marker-assisted backcrossing, forward breeding, and MAS involving doubled haploid technology have been effectively used for this objective. Novel skills based on high throughput genotyping related with new marker systems (e.g., Diversity arrays technology DArT and as Single Nucleotide Polymorphism SNP), and new selection strategies such as (Advanced backcross QTL AB-QTL), mapping-as-you-go, marker-assisted recurrent selection, and genome-wide selection will have to be tried in future for upgrading of compound multigenic traits. The improvement made in all these features of marker-assisted wheat breeding, and the restrictions and future scenarios of this incipient technology have been reviewed in this article.


Wheat; Stripe Rust; DNA Markers; Marker Assisted Selection

Full Text:



Afzal, A., Ali, S.R., Ijaz, M., Saeed, M., 2021. Combating Ug99-Current scenario. International Journal of Phytopathology 10, 57-70.

Afzal, A., Riaz, A., Mirza, J.I., Shah, K.N., 2015. Status of wheat breeding at global level for combating Ug99–A Review. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology 27, 211-218.

Afzal, A., Riaz, A., Naz, F., Irshad, G., Rana, R.M., 2018. Detection of durable resistance against stripe rust and estimating genetic diversity through pedigree analysis of candidate wheat lines. International Journal of Biosciences 12, 24-35.

Ahmed, R., Riaz, A., Zakria, M., Naz, F., 2013. Incidence of karnal bunt (Tilletia indica Mitra) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in two districts of Punjab (Pakistan) and identification of resistance source. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology 25, 01-06.

Ali, S., Leconte, M., Rahman, H., Saqib, M.S., Gladieux, P., Enjalbert, J., de Vallavieille-Pope, C., 2014. A high virulence and pathotype diversity of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici at its centre of diversity, the Himalayan region of Pakistan. European Journal of Plant Pathology 140, 275-290.

Asima, G., Dar, Z.A., Lone, A.A., Abidi, I., Ali, G., 2015. Molecular breeding for resilience in maize-a review. Journal of Applied and Natural Science 7, 1057-1063.

Asseng, S., Ewert, F., Martre, P., Rötter, R.P., Lobell, D.B., Cammarano, D., Kimball, B.A., Ottman, M.J., Wall, G.W., White, J.W., Reynolds, M.P., Alderman, P.D., Prasad, P.V.V., Aggarwal, P.K., Anothai, J., Basso, B., Biernath, C., Challinor, A.J., De Sanctis, G., Doltra, J., Fereres, E., Garcia-Vila, M., Gayler, S., Hoogenboom, G., Hunt, L.A., Izaurralde, R.C., Jabloun, M., Jones, C.D., Kersebaum, K.C., Koehler, A.-K., Müller, C., Kumar, S.N., Nendel, C., Leary, G.O., Olesen, J.E., Palosuo, T., Priesack, E., Rezaei, E.E., Ruane, A.C., Semenov, M.A., Shcherbak, I., Stöckle, C., Stratonovitch, P., Streck, T., Supit, I., Tao, F., Thorburn, P.J., Waha, K., Wang, E., Wallach, D., Wolf, J., Zhao, Z., Zhu Y., 2015. Rising temperatures reduce global wheat production. Nature Climate Change 5, 143-147.

Bahri, B., Shah, S.J.A., Hussain, S., Leconte, M., Enjalbert, J., de Vallavieille‐Pope, C., 2011. Genetic diversity of the wheat yellow rust population in Pakistan and its relationship with host resistance. Plant Pathology 60, 649-660.

Begum, S., Iqbal, M., Ahmed, I., Fayyaz, M., Shahzad, A., Ali, G.M., 2014. Allelic variation at loci controlling stripe rust resistance in spring wheat. Journal of Genetics 93, 579-586.

Chakraborty, S., Newton, A.C., 2011. Climate change, plant diseases and food security: an overview. Plant Pathology 60, 2-14.

Chen, X.M., 2005. Epidemiology and control of stripe rust [Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici] on wheat. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 27, 314-337.

Collard, B.C.Y., Jahufer, M.Z.Z., Brouwer, J.B., Pang, E.C.K., 2005. An introduction to markers, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping and marker-assisted selection for crop improvement: the basic concepts. Euphytica 142, 169-196.

Eathington, S.R., Crosbie, T.M., Edwards, M.D., Reiter, R.S., Bull, J.K., 2007. Molecular markers in a commercial breeding program. Crop Science 47, 154-163.

Eckstein, P., Rossnagel, B., Scoles, G., 2008. DArTs without the DArT board: the application of individual DArT markers to marker-assisted selection, The 8th International Oat Conference, June 28th-July 2nd.

El-Orabey, W.M., Ashmawy, M.A., Shahin, A.A., Ahmed, M.I., 2020. Screening of CIMMYT wheat genotypes against yellow rust in Egypt. International Journal of Phytopathology 9, 51-70.

Francia, E., Tacconi, G., Crosatti, C., Barabaschi, D., Bulgarelli, D., Dall’Aglio, E., Valè, G., 2005. Marker assisted selection in crop plants. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 82, 317-342.

Gu, L., Si, W., Zhao, L., Yang, S., Zhang, X., 2015. Dynamic evolution of NBS–LRR genes in bread wheat and its progenitors. Molecular Genetics and Genomics 290, 727-738.

Gupta, P.K., Kumar, J., Mir, R.R., Kumar, A., 2010a. Marker-assisted selection as a component of conventional plant breeding. Plant Breeding Reviews 33, 145-161.

Gupta, P.K., Langridge, P., Mir, R.R., 2010b. Marker-assisted wheat breeding: present status and future possibilities. Molecular Breeding 26, 145-161.

Hovmøller, M.S., Walter, S., Bayles, R.A., Hubbard, A., Flath, K., Sommerfeldt, N., Leconte, M., Czembor, P., Rodriguez‐Algaba, J., Thach, T., Hansen, J.G., Lassena, P., Justesena, A.F., Ali, S., de Vallavieille-Pope, C., 2016. Replacement of the European wheat yellow rust population by new races from the centre of diversity in the near‐Himalayan region. Plant Pathology 65, 402-411.

Jiang, H.F., Xiao-Ping, R.E.N., Zhang, X., Huang, J., Yong, L., Li-Ying, Y., Bo-Shou, L., Upadhyaya, H.D., Holbrook, C.C., 2010. Comparison of genetic diversity based on SSR markers between peanut mini core collections from China and ICRISAT. Acta Agronomica Sinica 36, 1084-1091.

Khanzada, S.D., Rashid, A., Din N.U., Rattu, A.U.R., Raza, A., 2012. Effectiveness of yellow rust resistance genes in Pakistani wheats, Proceeding 2nd, 3rd, 4th Regional Conference Yellow Rust in the Central West Asia North Africa (CWANA) Region. ICARDA. Pp102-112.

Liu, J., Qiao, L., Zhang, X., Li, X., Zhan, H., Guo, H., Zheng, J., Chang, Z., 2017. Genome-wide identification and resistance expression analysis of the NBS gene family in Triticum urartu. Genes & Genomics 39, 611-621.

McNeil, M.D., Hermann, S., Jackson, P.A., Aitken, K.S., 2011. Conversion of AFLP markers to high-throughput markers in a complex polyploid, sugarcane. Molecular Breeding 27, 395-407.

Mujeeb-Kazi, A., Kazi, A.G., Dundas, I., Rasheed, A., Ogbonnaya, F., Kishii, M., Bonnett, D., Wang, R.R., Xu, S., Chen, P., 2013. Genetic diversity for wheat improvement as a conduit to food security. Advances in Agronomy 122, 179-257.

Raman, H., Raman, R., Kilian, A., Detering, F., Long, Y., Edwards, D., Parkin, I.A.P., Sharpe, A.G., Nelson, M.N., Larkan, N., 2013. A consensus map of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) based on diversity array technology markers: applications in genetic dissection of qualitative and quantitative traits. BMC Genomics 14, 1-13.

Ribaut, J.M., De Vicente, M.C., Delannay, X., 2010. Molecular breeding in developing countries: challenges and perspectives. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 13, 213-218.

Schouten, H.J., van de Weg, W.E., Carling, J., Khan, S.A., McKay, S.J., van Kaauwen, M.P.W., Wittenberg, A.H.J., Koehorst-van Putten, H.J.J., Noordijk, Y., Gao, Z., 2012. Diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers in apple for genetic linkage maps. Molecular Breeding 29, 645-660.

Schwessinger, B., 2017. Fundamental wheat stripe rust research in the 21st century. New Phytologist 213, 1625-1631.

Semagn, K., Bjørnstad, Å., Skinnes, H., Marøy, A.G., Tarkegne, Y., William, M., 2006. Distribution of DArT, AFLP, and SSR markers in a genetic linkage map of a doubled-haploid hexaploid wheat population. Genome 49, 545-555.

Senker, P., 2011. Foresight: the future of food and farming, final project report. Taylor & Francis, Prometheus, pp. 309–313.

Shahin, A., Arens, P., Van Heusden, S., Van Tuyl, J.M., 2009. Conversion of molecular markers linked to Fusarium and virus resistance in Asiatic lily hybrids, XXIII International Eucarpia Symposium, Section Ornamentals: Colourful Breeding and Genetics 836, pp. 131-136.

Singh, R.P., William, H.M., Huerta-Espino, J., Rosewarne, G., 2004. Wheat rust in Asia: meeting the challenges with old and new technologies Proceedings of the 4th International Crop Science Congress; 26 Sep -1 Oct 2004 Brisbane, QLD.

Tariq-Khan, M., Younas, M.T., Mirza, J.I., Awan, S.I., Jameel, M., Saeed, M., Mahmood, B., 2020. Evaluation of major and environmentally driven genes for resistance in Pakistani wheat landraces and their prospected potential against yellow rust. International Journal of Phytopathology 9, 145-156.

Wellings, C.R., 2011. Global status of stripe rust: a review of historical and current threats. Euphytica 179, 129-141.

Xu, M., Huaracha, E., Korban, S.S., 2001. Development of sequence-characterized amplified regions (SCARs) from amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers tightly linked to the Vf gene in apple. Genome 44, 63-70.



  • There are currently no refbacks.