Amjad Ali, Muhammad Ahmad Zeshan, Muhammad Mehtab, Saad Khursheed, Muhammad Mudasir, Muhammad Abid, Mubashar Mahdi, Hafiz Abdul Rauf, Shahid Ameer, Muhammad Younis, Muhammad Tanveer Altaf, Abdullah Tahir


The extensive use of synthetic pesticides has a harmful impact on the environment, plants and animal health. It is a big challenge for all farming systems to develop novel approaches, which are eco-friendly and improve food quality. As compared to synthetic pesticides, the use of beneficial microbes is the best option to maintain the environmental condition because they are cost-effective and ecofriendly. In the recent era, biological antagonistic microorganisms (Trichoderma spp.) are the best approach to control the soil-borne fungal pathogens associated with plant roots of agriculturally important crops. Due to fast growth and rhizospheric colonization ability, this fungus competes with other pathogenic soil-borne fungi by producing different metabolites (volatile and non-volatile). Trichoderma protected the plants from pathogenic fungi through mycoparasitic and antibiosis capability. Furthermore, it has the ability to improve plant health by inducing SAR (Systemic acquired resistance), ISR (Induce systemic resistance), producing antifungal enzymes (α-1, 3-glucanases, Trichodermaketone, and trichodermin) and antioxidant enzymes that strengthen the immune system by increasing activities of guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) after pathogen attack. Development of bio-fungicide formulation by using the spore of Trichoderma species (T. harzianum, T. viride, and T. virens) are most effective against soil-borne pathogenic fungi at different concentrations and temperatures. This review article has significantly focused on gathering and summarizing the most recent literature to highlight the visible production and application of Trichoderma as a biomonitoring and biocontrol agent in plant diseases management program.


Trichoderma spp.; Soil born fungi; Synthetic pesticides; Antagonistic microbes; Bio-fungicide formulation

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.33804/pp.005.03.3934


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