Muhammad Umer, Mustansar Mubeen, Muhammad Ateeq, Munsif Ali Shad, Muhammad Nauman Atiq, Muhammad Mohsin Kaleem, Shehzad Iqbal, Aamir Ali Shaikh, Ikram Ullah, Moman Khan, Akhtiar Ahmed Kalhoro, Aqleem Abbas


Citrus is an important fruit crop of the world. It is the most important commercial fruit crop having higher moisture contents and nutrient composition. Citrus losses are mainly due to diseases that highly affect their quality and quantity. Black rot of fruit caused by Alternaria citri, is a significant fungal disease of citrus that causes severe losses in citrus orchards of the world. It affects most of the members of the citrus family and often causes severe losses. The disease primarily affects the aboveground parts of plants, leaves explicitly, and fruits. The first symptoms, however, usually appear on the leaves as black necrotic lesions. Later black necrotic lesions are also formed on fruits, and with the age of plants, the fruits become soft and black rot. The disease has been controlled by cultural practices and by growing resistant cultivars that do not allow the entry of the pathogen. Preharvest fungicides are also applied to prevent the disease but are not highly effective. Postharvest sprays with fungicides have also controlled the disease. However, fungicides are not eco-friendly, and demands for alternatives are arising. Other options are the application of biological control agents; however, biological agents are not effective under field conditions. The present review summarizes the current status of black rot of citrus and its management strategies.


Black rot; Alternaria citri; Citrus symptoms; Management

Full Text:



Agostini, J.P., Bushong, P.M., Bhatia, A., Timmer, L.W., 2003. Influence of environmental factors on severity of citrus scab and melanose. Plant Disease 87, 1102-1106.

Ahmad, M., Khalid, Z.M., Farooqi, W.A., 1997. Effect of waxing and lining material on storage life of some citrus fruits. Horticulture Society 92, 237-240.

Alférez, F., Agusti, M., Zacarı́as, L., 2003. Postharvest rind staining in navel oranges is aggravated by changes in storage relative humidity: effect on respiration, ethylene production and water potential. Postharvest Biology and Technology 28, 143-152.

Anwaar, H., Iqbal, Z., Rehman, M.A., Mubeen, M., Abbas, A., Usman, H.M., Farhan, M., Sohail, M.A., Kiptoo, J.J., Iqbal, S., 2020. Evaluation of fungicides and biopesticides for the control of Alternaria black rot disease in citrus. Plant Cell Biotechnology and Molecular Biology 21, 118-126.

Arras, G., Piga, A., 1995. Thymus capitatus essential oil reducing citrus fruit decay, Postharvest physiology and technology for horticultural commodities, , pp. 426-428.

Berraf-Tebbal, A., Mahamedi, A.E., Aigoun-Mouhous, W., Špetík, M., Čechová, J., Pokluda, R., Baránek, M., Eichmeier, A., Alves, A., 2020. Lasiodiplodia mitidjana sp. nov. and other Botryosphaeriaceae species causing branch canker and dieback of Citrus sinensis in Algeria PloS one 15, 0232448.

Bushong, P.M., Timmer, L.W., 2000. Evaluation of postinfection control of citrus scab and melanose with benomyl, fenbuconazole, and azoxystrobin. Plant Disease 84, 1246-1249.

Canihos, Y., Erkilic, A., Timmer, L.W., 1997. First report of Alternaria brown spot of Minneola tangelo in Turkey. Plant Disease 81, 1214-1214.

Canihos, Y., Peever, T.L., Timmer, L.W., 1999. Temperature, leaf wetness, and isolate effects on infection of Minneola tangelo leaves by Alternaria sp. Plant Disease 83, 429-433.

Chen, K., Tian, Z., He, H., Long, C.A., Jiang, F., 2020. Bacillus species as potential biocontrol agents against citrus diseases. Biological Control 104419.

Cobb, N.A., 1903. Letters on the disease of plants-Alternaria of the citrus tribe. The Agriculture Gazette of New South Wales 14, 955-986.

Diepenbrock, L.M., Dewdney, M.M., Vashisth, T., 2020. 2020–2021 Florida Citrus Production Guide: Introduction, in: Florida, U.o. (Ed.), EDIS, Florida, pp. 1-3.

Ellis, M.B., Subramanian, C.V., 1968. CMI descriptions of pathogenic fungi and bacteria, in: Commonwealth Mycological Institute, F.L., Kew, Surrey, UK. (Ed.). Commonwealth Mycological Institute Kew UK, Surrey UK, pp. 241-250.

Farooqi, W.A., Shaukat, G.A., Malik, M.A., Ahmad, M.S., 1981. Studies on the inhibition of Alternaria citri in stored citrus fruits, Proceedings of the annual meeting of the Florida State Horticultural Society (USA).

Ferreira, F.V., Herrmann‐Andrade, A.M., Calabrese, C.D., Bello, F., Vázquez, D., Musumeci, M.A., 2020. Effectiveness of Trichoderma strains isolated from the rhizosphere of citrus tree to control Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Penicillium digitatum A21 resistant to pyrimethanil in post‐harvest oranges (Citrus sinensis L.(Osbeck) Journal of Applied Microbiology 129, 712-727.

Gillespie, K.J., 1981. Chemical control of Fusarium and Alternaria rots in long term storage of citrus. Australian Government Department of Agriculture Australia, p. 81.

Hasan, M.F., Islam, M.A., Sikdar, B., 2020. First report of Serratia marcescens associated with black rot of Citrus sinensis fruit, and evaluation of its biological control measures in Bangladesh. F1000Research 9(1371), 1371.

Hendricks, K.E., Christman, M.C., Roberts, P.D., 2020. The effect of weather and location of fruit within the tree on the incidence and severity of citrus black spot on Fruit. Scientific Reports 10, 1-12.

Iftikhar, Y., Bakhtawar, F., Hussain, I., Sajid, A., Mubeen, M., Ahmad, M., Zeshan, M.A.S., Fatima, N., Umer, M., Iqbal, S., 2020. Detection of Spiroplasma citri causing citrus stubborn disease in Sargodha, Pakistan. International Journal of Botany Studies 5, 481-485.

Jaouad, M., Moinina, A., Ezrari, S., Lahlali, R., 2020. Key pests and diseases of citrus trees with emphasis on root rot diseases: An overview. Moroccan Journal of Agricultural Sciences 1(3).

Jeger, M.J., Plumbley, R.A., 1988. Post-harvest losses caused by anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) of tropical fruits and vegetables, Biodeterioration 7. Springer, pp. 642-646.

Kaplan, H.J., Dave, B.A., 1980. The current status of Imazilil: a post harvest fungicide for citrus, Proceedings of the annual meeting of the Florida State Horticultural Society, Florida USA.

Katoh, H., Isshiki, A., Masunaka, A., Yamamoto, H., Akimitsu, K., 2006. A virulence-reducing mutation in the postharvest citrus pathogen Alternaria citri. Phytopathology 96, 934-940.

Kuramoto, T., Yamada, S., 1975. The influence of environmental factors on infection of citrus melanose caused by Diaporthe citri (Faw.) Wolf: Especially on the period of wetness, Bulletin of the Fruit Tree Research Station. Series B.

Long, J.K., Roberts, E.A., 1958. The phytotoxic and fungicidal effects of sodium o-phenylphenate in controlling green mould wastage in oranges. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 9, 609-628.

MacHardy, W.E., Gadoury, D.M., Gessler, C., 2001. Parasitic and biological fitness of Venturia inaequalis: relationship to disease management strategies. Plant Disease 85, 1036-1051.

Masunaka, A., Tanaka, A., Tsuge, T., Peever, T.L., Timmer, L.W., Yamamoto, M., Yamamoto, H., Akimitsu, K., 2000. Distribution and characterization of AKT homologs in the tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata. Phytopathology 90, 762-768.

Mills, W.D., 1947. Effects of sprays of lime sulfur and of elemental sulfur on apple in relation to yield. Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station, Cornell University, New York, pp. 35-38.

Miri, S.M., Salari, M., Ahmadpour, A., 2018. Physicochemical responses of ‘kinnow’mandarins to wax and polyethylene covering during cold storage. Open Agriculture 3, 678-683.

Mondal, S.N., Vicent, A., Reis, R.F., Timmer, L.W., 2007. Efficacy of pre-and postinoculation application of fungicides to expanding young citrus leaves for control of melanose, scab, and Alternaria brown spot. Plant Disease 91, 1600-1606.

Mubeen, M., Arshad, H.M., Iftikhar, Y., Bilqees, I., Arooj, S., Saeed, H.M., 2015a. In vitro efficacy of antibiotics against Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri through inhabitation zone techniques. International Journal of Agriculture and Applied Sciences 7, 67-71.

Mubeen, M., Arshad, H.M., Iftikhar, Y., Irfan Ullah, M., and Bilqees, I., 2015b. Bio-chemical characterization of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri: a gram negative bacterium causing citrus canker. . International Journal of Science and Nature 6, 151, 154.

Nalumpang, S., Gotoh, Y., Tsuboi, H., Kenji, G., Yamamoto, H., Akimitsu, K., 2002. Functional characterization of citrus polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein. Journal of General Plant Pathology 68, 118-127.

Naqvi, S.A.M.H., 2004. Diagnosis and management of pre and post-harvest diseases of citrus fruit, Diseases of Fruits and Vegetables Volume I. Springer, pp. 339-359.

Neal, M.C., 1991. In gardens of Hawaii. . Bishop Museum Press, 924.

Niaz, C.M., 2004. History and origin of Citrus fruits, Proceedings of International Symposium Citric Agriculture Foundation Pakistan Islamabad, pp. 7-10.

Pampanagouda, B., 2000. Studies on anthracnose of grape caused by Sphaceloma ampelinum, M. Sc.(Agri.) Thesis.

Peever, T.L., Su, G., Carpenter, B.L., Timmer, L.W., 2004. Molecular systematics of citrus-associated Alternaria species. Mycologia 96, 119-134.

PHDEB, 2006. Production and trade analysis. Pakistan Horticultural Development and Export Board (PHDEB), Ministry of Commerce, Government of Pakistan.

Riaz, T., Abbasi, A.M., Shahzadi, T., Ajaib, M., Khan, M.K., 2012. Phytochemical screening, free radical scavenging, antioxidant activity and phenolic content of Dodonaea viscosa. Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society 77, 423-435.

Rippon, L.E., Morris, S.C., 1981. Guazatine control of sour rot in lemons, oranges and tangors under various storage conditions. Scientia Horticulturae 14, 245-251.

Rotem, J., 1994. The genus Alternaria: biology, epidemiology, and pathogenicity. American Phytopathological Society.

Sadowsky, A., Kimchi, M., Oren, Y., Solel, Z., 2002. Occurrence and management of Alternaria brown spot in Israel. Phytoparasitica 30, 19-25.

Sastry, M.N.L., Lingaraju, S., Naik, S.T., 1989. Efficacy of some fungicides in the control of anthracnose of grapevines. Pesticides 23, 29-30.

Sawant, I.S., Sawant, S.D., 2006. Potential of Trichoderma spp. and hot water treatment for control of grapevine anthracnose, International Symposium on Grape Production and Processing 785, pp. 301-304.

Sierotzki, H., Wullschleger, J., Gisi, U., 2000. Point mutation in cytochrome b gene conferring resistance to strobilurin fungicides in Erysiphe graminis f. sp. tritici field isolates. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 68, 107-112.

Singh. D., Jain, R.K., 2004. Post harvest microbial losses in distant marketing of kinnow. Plant Disease Research 19, 36-39.

Smith, I.M., McNamara, D.G., Scott, P.R., Holderness, M., 1997. Quarantine Pests of Europe CAB International, University Press, Cambridge, Cambridge.

Solel, Z., Timmer, L.W., Kimchi, M., 1996. Iprodione resistance of Alternaria alternata pv. citri from Minneola tangelo in Israel and Florida. Plant Disease 80, 291-293.

Swart, S.H., Wingfield, M.J., Swart, W.J., Schutte, G.C., 1998. Chemical control of Alternaria brown spot on Minneola tangelo in South Africa. Annals of Applied Biology 133, 17-30.

Szkolnik, M., 1978. Techniques involved in greenhouse evaluation of deciduous tree fruit fungicides. Annual Review of Phytopathology 16, 103-129.

Szkolnik, M., 1980. Postinfection evaluation of fungicides in the greenhouse for apple scab control, 1979 [Apple (Malus sylvestris), apple scab; Venturia inaequalis]. Fungicide and Nematicide Tests; Results American Phytopathological Society 35, 1-21.

Timmer, L.W., Garnsey, S.M., Graham, J.H., 2000. Compendium of Citrus Diseases The American Phytopathological Society pp. 1-92.

Verniere, C.J., Gottwald, T.R., Pruvost, O., 2003. Disease development and symptom expression of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri in various citrus plant tissues. Phytopathology 93, 832-843.

Vitale, A., Aiello, D., Azzaro, A., Guarnaccia, V., Polizzi, G., 2021. An Eleven-Year Survey on Field Disease Susceptibility of Citrus Accessions to Colletotrichum and Alternaria Species. Agriculture 11, 536.

Wilcox, W.F., 1990. Postinfection and antisporulant activities of selected fungicides in control of blossom blight of sour cherry caused by Monilinia fructicola. Plant Disease 74, 808-811.

Zaragoza, S., Alonso, E., 1975. El manchado de la corteza de los frutos agrios estudio preliminar de la variedad navelate manchas pre recoleccion. Comunicaciones INIA Serie Proteccion Vegetal 4, 32.

Zitko, S.E., Timmer, L.W., 1998. Evaluation of fungicides for control of citrus scab and melanose on grapefruit, 1996. Fungicide Nematicide Tests 53, 490.



  • There are currently no refbacks.