Water and Air Pollution as an Emerging Problem for Pakistan: A Review

Munzer Ullah, Maliha Sarfraz, Hayat Ullah, Zia ur Rahman, Zarif Gul, Misbah Ullah Khan, Rashid Iqbal, Maheen Kanwal, Aasma Gulzar, Tehmina Sadiq, Aisha Rabnawaz


Currently, the development of human societies is greatly affected because of global environmental problems. Pakistan is also on the list of the most affected countries facing a number of environmental issues that affect not only people health but also the economy. The present work examines with focus on secondary data and information gathered from various literature on water and air pollution. Both water and air pollution are very complex issues and their connection to measuring the exact level of pollution is an extremely difficult one. Therefore, in this review, the main sources influencing pollution risks in Pakistan are human urbanization, surface water pollution, industrial sewage pollution, air pollution, and soil pollution. This study will help to develop suitable strategies and rules for Pakistan environmental protection in the near future. Finally, the aim of this article is to raise awareness of environmental pollution, including water pollution, air pollution, and their effect on human health, animals, and agricultural activities.


Climate change; Air pollution; Water pollution; WHO; Economic losses; Water Pollution in Pakistan

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.33687/jpe.004.01.3992


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