Debarshi Bhattacharya


Création of enclaves in India and Bangladesh was the consequence of historical partition of India in 1947. Inhabitants within these enclaves were forced to live in ‘no man's land’ as ‘nowhere people’ till 67 years after India’s independence just due to scorn of historical and political destiny and unjustly deprived from getting basic facilities, rights, opportunities and governmental support for their livelihood until signing of the historic Land Boundary Agreement (LBA) between India and Bangladesh in the year 2015. As per LBA, 2015, 51 Bangladeshi enclaves in Indian territory and 111 Indian enclaves in Bangladesh territory were actually transferred to the other country with effect from the midnight of 31 July 2015. A comparative study has been undertaken through extensive field survey at the erstwhile enclaves in both the countries to witness the post-execution impact of LBA, 2015 on the status of livelihoods of these enclaves’ people. A questionnaire containing series of effective questions has been set out to gather information from enclaves’ people, Govt. officials, representatives of enclaves’ union, public representatives etc. For the theoretical part of this study, various journals, periodicals, newspapers, reference books, Govt. Reports, published articles, published reports of previous researchers, reports of electronic media etc. have been extensively consulted. The entire population of erstwhile Indian and Bangladeshi enclaves covered under the study cordially welcomed exchange of enclaves through LBA, 2015, as they get rid of their exiled life of long 67 years in enclaves by virtue of LBA, 2015. But even after execution of LBA, 2015, major problematic issues of these erstwhile enclaves have not yet been resolved; nor could enclaves’ people enjoy the quality of life enjoyed by their neighbours living just around these enclaves. All these erstwhile enclaves’ people, especially people of erstwhile Bangladeshi enclaves in India and migrated people of Indian enclaves from Bangladesh, are still feeling anxious whether ‘delay in justice’ would ultimately be ended with ‘denial of justice’ for them or not.


Enclaves; Enclaves Settlement Camps; Exchange of Enclaves; Land Boundary Agreement (LBA)

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