Soil Manuring and Genetic Variation Conjunctively Surmount the Partial Drought Stress in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Tajwar Alam, Muhammad Anwar-ul-Haq, Muhammad Ateeq Ahmed, Asim Hayat, Nida Fatima, Saba Babar, Muhammad Ikram, Zahid Iqbal


Crop growth is negatively influenced under water-stress conditions, which is among the most yield-limiting factors significantly decreasing crop yield. This study evaluated the effect of water-deficit stress on physiological, bio-chemical and yield attributes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under both constantly wet and water-stressed conditions on two wheat varieties (UJALA-14, SARC-4). Further, the combined impacts of crop genetic variability and organic manuring in soil was studied for overcoming the partial drought stress in wheat. Treatments of different levels of irrigation water alone or with farmyard manure (FYM) @ 20 Mg ha‒1 were compared as: constantly wet irrigation (control), irrigation intensity equal to field capacity (FC), ½ FC + FYM, and ¼ FC + FYM. Crop growth, physiological and chlorophyll as well as sodium and potassium contents were measured. The findings of current study exhibited that shortage of water had negative effects on growth, physiological, bio-chemical and yield attributes of wheat. Genotype SARC-4 exhibited superior growth response having constantly wet and field capacity condition, on the other hand UJALA-14 gave better growth response under water stress conditions of ½ FC and ¼ FC when treated with FYM amendment. It is concluded that partial drought stress developed tolerance in wheat genotypes particularly in UJALA-14, which was strengthened with organic amendment. Combined use of drought tolerant varieties and application of FYM as a fertilizer is very effective way to enhance crop yield.


Organic amendments; Relative water contents; Triticum aestivum L.; Water stress; Yield

Full Text:



Ahmad, R., G. Jilani, M. Arshad, Z.A. Zahir and A. Khalid. 2007. Bioconversion of organic wastes for their recycling in agriculture: An overview of perspectives and prospects. Annals of Microbiology, 57(4): 471–479.

Akram, M. 2011. Growth and yield components of wheat under water stress of different growth stages. Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research, 36: 455–468.

Alishah, and A. Ahmadikhah. 2009. The effect of drought stress on improved cotton varieties in Golestan provience. International Journal of Plant Production, 3: 17–26.

Anjum, F., M. Yaseen, E. Rasul, A. Wahid and S. Anjum. 2003. Water stress in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Effect on chemical composition and chlorophyll contents. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 40: 45–49.

Awad, and H.M. Ahmed. 2019. Response of Jerusalem artichoke plants grown under saline calcareous soil to application of different combined organic manures. Egyptian Journal of Soil Science, 59: 117–130.

Bano, C., N. Amist and N.B. Singh. 2019. Morphological and anatomical modifications of plants for environmental stresses. In: Molecular Plant Abiotic Stress: Biology and Biotechnology. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New Jersey, pp: 29–44.

Channabasanagowda, N.K., B. Patil, B.N. Patil, J.S. Awaknavar, B.T. Ninganurn and R. Hunje. 2008. Effect of organic manures on growth, seed yield and quality of wheat. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 21(3): 366–368.

Chen, Y., M. Camps-Arbestain, Q. Shen, B. Singh and M.L. Cayuela. 2018. The long-term role of organic amendments in building soil nutrient fertility: a meta-analysis and review. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 111(2,3): 103–125.

Chenu, C., D.A. Angers, P. Barre, D. Derrien, D. Arrouays and J. Balesdent. 2019. Increasing organic stocks in agricultural soils: Knowledge gaps and potential innovations. Soil Tillage Research, 188: 41–52.

Cicek, and H. Cakirlar. 2002. The effect of water stress on some physiological parameters in two maize cultivars. Bulgarian Journal of Plant Physiology, 28: 66–74.

Dencic, S., R. Kastori, B. Kobiljski and B. Duggan. 2000. Evaluation of grain yield and its components in wheat cultivars and landraces under near optimal and drought conditions. Euphytica, 113: 43–52.

El-Ghamry, A.M., A.M. Abd-El-Hamid and A.A. Mosa. 2009. Effect of farmyard manure and foliar application of micronutrients on yield characteristics of wheat grown on salt affected soil. American-Eurasian Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Science, 5(4): 460–465.

Feber, R.E., P.J. Johnson and D.W. Macdonald. 2019. What Can Organic Farming Contribute to Biodiversity Restoration? In: The Science Beneath Organic Production. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New Jersey, pp: 111–132.

Fernandez, F.J., M. Blanco, R.D. Ponce, L.F. Vasquez and L. Roco. 2019. Implications of climate change for semi-arid dualistic agriculture: a case study in Central Chile. Regulation Environment Change, 19(1): 89–100.

Hendrix, P.F., M.A. Callaham and S.W. James. 1994. Ecology of nearetic earthworms in the Southern USA-I, Charasteristics of diplocardia longa surface casts in grass, hardwood and pinc micro habitats on the lower pied mount of Georgia. Egadrilogica, 5: 45–51.

Inamullah, Z., A. Swati, A. Latif and Siraj-u-Din. 1999. Evaluation of lines for drought tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Science Khyber, 12: 39–48.

Iqbal. K., F.M. Azhar, I.A. Khan and E. Ullah. 2010. Assessment of cotton germplasm under water stress conditions. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 12: 251–225.

Jatoi, W.A., M.J. Baloch, M.B. Kumbhar, N.U. Khan and M.I. Kerio. 2011. Effect of water stress on physiological and yield parameters at anthesis stage in elite spring wheat cultivars. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 27: 59–65.

Klar, A.E., I.A.M. Denadai and A. Catanco. 1990. Behaviour of wheat cultivars with and without irrigation. Field Crops Research, 18: 12–26.

Korir, P., J. Nyabundi and P. Kimurto. 2006. Genotypic response of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). to moisture stress condition in Kenya. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 5: 24–32.

Kumar, R., V. Singh, S.K. Pawar, P.K. Singh, A. Kaur and A. Sharma. 2019. Abiotic stress and wheat grain quality: a comprehensive review. In: Wheat Production in Changing Environments. Springer, Singapore, pp: 63–87.

Li, X., K. Kristiansen, E. Rosenqvist and F. Liu. 2019. Elevated CO2 modulates the effects of drought and heat stress on plant water relations and grain yield in wheat. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 205: 362–371.

Lie, W., Z. Tong and D. Shengyan. 2006. Effect of drought and rewatering on photosynthetic physioecological characterstics of soysbeen. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 26: 2073–2078.

Mafakheri, A., A.F. Siosemardeh, B. Bahramnejad, P.C. Struik and Y. Sohrabi. 2010. Effect of drought stress on yield, proline and chlorophyll contents in three chickpea cultivars. Australian Journal of Crop Science, 4(8): 580.

Manzoor, R., M.S. Akhtar, K.S. Khan and C. Rosen. 2022. Micronutrient Status and their Deficiency Diagnosed through DRIS in Tomato Growing Areas. Journal of Plant and Environment, 4(1): 01-08.

Memon, H.M.U., M.A. Sial and H. Bux. 2022. Evaluation of Bread Wheat Genotypes for Water Stress Tolerance Using Agronomic Traits. Acta Agrobotanica, 75.

Merah. 2001. Potential importance of water status traits for durum wheat improvement under Mediterranean conditions. Journal of Agricultural Science, 137: 139–145.

Mirbahar, A.A., G.S. Markhand and A.R. Mahar. 2009. Effect of water stress on yield and yield component of wheat (Triticim aestivum L) varieties. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 41: 1303–1310.

Munaweera, T.I.K., N.U. Jayawardana, R. Rajaratnam and N. Dissanayake. 2022. Modern plant biotechnology as a strategy in addressing climate change and attaining food security. Agriculture and Food Security, 11(1): 1-28.

Nergui, K., S. Jin, L. Zhao, X. Liu, T. Xu, J. Wei and X. Deng. 2022. Comparative analysis of physiological, agronomic and transcriptional responses to drought stress in wheat local varieties from Mongolia and Northern China. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 170: 23-35.

Premchandra, G., S.H. Saneoka and S. Ogata. 1990. Cell membrane stability, an indicator of drought tolerance as affected by applied nitrogen in soybean. Journal of Agricultural Science, 115: 63–66.

Sairam. 1994. Effects of homobrassinolide application on plant metabolism and grain yield under irrigated and moisture-stress conditions of two wheat varieties. Plant Growth Regulators, 14: 173–181.

Sarwar, N., M. Maqsood, K. Mubeen, M. Shehzad, M.S. Bhullar, R. Qamar and N. Akbar. 2010. Effect of different levels of irrigation on yield and yield components of wheat cultivars. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 47: 371–374.

Shah, M. N., S. Hussain, H. Ali, M. Khan, A. Bukhari, S. Ali and M. Sohail. 2022. Comparative Screening of Hybrids and Synthetic Maize (Zea mays L.) Cultivars for Drought-Sensitive and Drought-Tolerant Under Different Irrigation Regimes. Journal of Plant and Environment, 4(1): 09-17.

Sharma, V.K., S.K. Thakar, S.S. Vaish, M. Shafiand and A.A. Mir. 2005. Agricultural Science Digest, 25(3): 204-206.

Singh, A., N. Kumar, P. Kumar, B.R. Pandey, P.D. Singh and S. Singh. 2018. Effect of customized fertilizers on the growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under Eastern Uttar Pradesh. International Journal of Conservation Science, 6: 3155–3159.

Steel, R.G.D., J.H. Torrie and D.A. Dickey. 1997. Principles and Procedures of Statistics: A Biometrical Approach, 3rd editi. McGraw-Hill, New York.

US Salinity Lab Staff. 1954. Diagnosis and Improvement of Saline and Alkali Soils. USDA Handbook No. 60. Washington DC, USA.

Wang, J.Y., Y.C. Xiong, F.M. Li, K.H. Siddique and N.C. Turner. 2017. Effects of drought stress on morph-physiological traits, biochemical characteristics, yield, and yield components in different ploidy wheat: A meta-analysis. Advances in Agriculture, 143: 139–173.

Weatherley. 1950. Studies in the water relations of the wheat plant. The field measurements of water deficits in leaves. New Phytologist, 49: 81–97.

Wijewardana, C., K.R. Reddy, F.A. Alsajri, J.T. Irby, J. Krutz and B. Golden. 2018. Quantifying soil moisture deficit effects on soybean yield and yield component distribution patterns. Irrigation Science, 36: 241–255.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2024 Tajwar Alam

Journal of Plant and Environment
ISSN: 2710-1665 (Online), 2710-1657 (Print)
© EScience Press. All Rights Reserved.