Cotton Production Trends in Pakistan: An Integrative Review

Khalid Mehmood Ch, Saleem Ashraf, Ijaz Ashraf


Cotton is regarded as a cash crop in Pakistan and the country is ranked 5th in terms of production and 5th importer in the world as well. Cotton production in Pakistan is under huge pressure and it's continuously declining over the period. This review aimed at exploring the different reasons for the cotton production decline. This review comprises two major sections. In the first section, percentage change in area, production and yield of cotton in Punjab, Sindh and Pakistan is calculated from 1990-2020. This analysis indicated a drastic decline in area, production and the average yield of cotton in the country. In the second section, previously published literature is consolidated to explore the different constraints causing change in the area, production and average yield of cotton. The major constraints causing the sweeping decline included environmental constraints, climate change, water-related constraints, agronomic constraints and socio-economic related constraints. This study concludes that cotton crop decline is not in favor of cotton associated industry, farming groups and national economy and it is much needed to bring reforms for the revival of cotton crop. This study urges further research on exploring the reasons that are compelling farmers to reduce the cotton area, quitting cotton cultivation or switching to other crops.


Climate Change; Decline; Change; Textile Industry; Constraints

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