Daniel Nyadanu, Eric Dikera


Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is an important staple food crop in Ghana. It is used to prepare ‘tuo zaafi’, porridge and cake and to brew local beer known as ‘pito’.  Unfortunately, sorghum attracts limited research attention to improve its low productivity which is of great disincentive to farmers. Understanding of yield and its components in sorghum is needed to improve the yield of existing local varieties. A study was carried out under field conditions in Navrongo in the Kassena-Nankana district of the Upper East region of Ghana using four local accessions of sorghum; Banina, Kadaga, Naga red and Kapala to investigate yield and its components and their genetic parameters. There were significant (P<0.05) differences in yield traits among the accessions. High values for phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) and genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) were recorded for harvest index and number of grains per panicle. High heritability and high genetic advance (GA) were observed for number of days to flowering, number of primary panicles, grain weight per panicle, and days to maturity. Banina variety produced the highest number of leaves, panicle height, panicle width, plant height, number of grains per panicle, grains weight, economic and biological yield. There were also significant and positive correlation among most of the characters studied. Principal components analysis revealed that Banina was the highest yielding accession and number of grains per panicle was the principal contributing factor of this accession.


Sorghum bicolor, Genetic advance, heritability, yield

Full Text:



Allard, R.W. 1960. Principles of plant breeding. John Wiley, New York. Pp. 477

Angelucci, F. 2013. Analysis of incentives and disincentives for sorghum in Ghana. Technical notes series, MAFAP, FAO, Rome, Italy.

Akuriba, M. A., Asuming-Brempong, S. and Bonsu, A.M. 2011. Productivity and competitiveness of sorghum production in Northern Ghana: A Policy Analysis Matrix Approach. Ghana Journal of Development Studies 8(2):101-116.

Awika, J.M. and Rooney, L.W. 2004. Sorghum phytochemicals and their potential aspects on human health. Phytochemistry 65: 1199-1221.

Bilgin, O., Korkut, K. Z., Baser, I. Dalioglu, O. Ozturk, I.T. Kahraman and Balkan, A. 2010. Variation and heritability for some semolina characteristics and grain yield and their relations in Durum Wheat (Triticum Durum Desf.). World Journal of Agriculture Sciences 6(3):301-308

Chandel, K. P. S. and Paroda, R.S. (2000). Status of plant genetic resources conservation and utilization in Asia-Pacific Region, Regional Synthesis Report 32, Asia-Pacific Association of Agricultural Institutions, FAO Regional office for Asia and the Pacific, Brangkok. Pp. 158.

Chinedu, S.N., Olasumbo, A.C., Eboji, O.K., Emiloju, O.C., Arinola, O.K. and Dania, D.I. (2011) Proximate and Phytochemical analyses of Solanum aethiopicum L. and Solanum macrocarpon L. Fruits. Research Journal of Chemical Sciences 1(3), 63-71.

Danquah, J. A. and Ofori, K. 2012. Variation and correlation among agronomic traits in 10 accessions of garden egg plant (Solanum gilo Raddi) in Ghana. International Journal of Science and Nature 3(2):373-379.

Deshmukh, S.N.N., Basu, M.S. and Reddy, P.S. 1986. Genetic variability, character association and path coefficient analysis of quantitative triats in Virginia bunch varieties of groundnut. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 56:515-518

Dicko, M. H., Gruppen, H., Traore, A.S., Voragen, A. G. H. and van Berkel, W.J.H. (2006). Sorghum grain as human food in Africa: Relevance of content of starch and amylase activities. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 5: 384-395.

Falconer, D.S. and Mackay, T.F.C. 1996. Introduction to quantitative genetics. 4th Ed., Benjamin Cummings. England.

GenStat 2008. Introduction to GenStat for Windows®. GenStat, 11th Edition, Lawes Agricultural Trust , Rothamsted Experimental Station, UK.

Ibrahim, E.B., Abdalla, A.W., Ibrahim, E.A., and Naim, A.M. 2014. Association between yield components of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. (Moench) under different watering intervals. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 1(3):85-92.

Jalata, Z., Ayana, A. and Zeleke, H. 2011. Variability, heritability and genetic advance for some yield and yield related traits in Ethiopian barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Landraces and crosses. International Journal of Plant Breeding and Genetics 5(1):44-52.

Khan, M.D., Khalil, I. H., Khan, M. A. and Ikramullah, A. 2005. Genetic divergence and association for yield and related traits in mash bean. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture., 20: 555-561.

Kudadjie, C.Y., Struik, P.C., Richards, P., and Offei, S.K. 2004. Assessing production constraints, management and use of sorghum diversity in north-east Ghana: A diagnostic study. University of Legon Accra, University of Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Mahajan, R. C., Wadikar, P.B., Pole, S.P. and Dhuppe, M.V. 2011. Variability, correlation and path analysis studies in sorghum. Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences 2(1):101-103.

Mehmood, S., Bashir, A., Ahmad, A., Akram, Z., Jabeen, N., and Gulfraz, M. (2008). Molecular characterisation of regional sorghum bicolor varieties from Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany Vol. 40: 2015-2021.

Millinath, V., Biradar, B.D., Chittapur, B.M., Salimath, P.M., Yenagi, N. and Patil, S.S. 2004. Variability and correlation studies in pop sorghum. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences 17(3): 463-467.

Muhammed, T., Shahid I. A. and Muhammed, I. 2007. Genetic variability and association for harvest index in sorghum under rain fed conditions. International Journal Agriculture and Biology 9( 3) pp. 470-472.

Singh, R.K. and Chaudhary, B.D. 1999. Biometrical Methods in Quantitative Genetic Analysis, Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi, India. Pp.104

Veerabadhiran, P., Palamisamy, S., and Sammy, G.A. 1994. Association analysis in grain sorghum. Madras Agricultural Journal 81 (10): 532-534.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2015 Daniel Nyadanu, Eric Dikera

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Journal of Plant Breeding and Genetics
ISSN: 2305-297X (Online), 2308-121X (Print)
© EScience Press. All Rights Reserved.